The dream of many city dwellers is a cozy country house. The most important step - the decision on the construction of the house. Before taking such a decision, you should know how long the house is built, to calculate their financial capabilities, that is, to decide for yourself whether it makes sense and the ability to build their own home.
If you decide to build a house, you need to select a site. The following factors should be considered in this case:
- The depth of the groundwater;
- soil characteristics;
- proximity to the city;
- transport interchange;
- ecological cleanliness of areas (absence of industrial plants);
- availability and other infrastructure.
The video provides guidance on how to choose a good site.
Many novice developers, acquiring land for the construction of a private home, they find that they can now build on it whatever they want. But it is not so. It should be good to understand all the regulations that describe the building regulations, prior to the start of construction work, to avoid problems in the future with the supervisory authorities, and do not have to pay the fines or, worse, to demolish the building. This should be taken into account when calculating the estimates.
- Group regulations
- Norms and rules of construction
- EXISTING RULES construction of private homes
- The standards and definitions
- principal distance
- business structure
- Entrance and staircase
- NEW RULES housing construction in Ukraine has made ...
- State building norms of Ukraine DBN 360-92
The first group of documents with the prescribed rules that need to be considered when designing the project, relates urban planning documentation. This group, consisting of graphics and text documents, regulated by the Planning and Development. The list of town-planning documentation includes:
- planning scheme;
- the master plan;
- a detailed plan.
According to these documents it is carried out planning, building and land use. There is another important document - the project development areas, which is being developed at a commercial building complexes, consisting of buildings and structures.
If the future of the construction does not fall under any of the existing town planning documents developed by the individual documentation for construction, called town-planning justification, which is included in the general town-planning documentation.
The development of projects accounted for a higher-level requirements planning documentation. On one of the objects of the company "KievNovBud" explains in the video about the cottage in with. Mountain. When developing a project of this house were taken into account all the construction, sanitary and fire-prevention requirements.
The basic document is the General scheduling scheme in Ukraine, which takes into account the development of the program of social and economic development of the country. When developed urban planning documentation of the local destination, taking into account the following documents prescribed in these regulations:
- State building codes.
- Terms of development across regions.
- Local rules of building purpose.
In the planning and construction of the company "KievNovBud" finished and under construction, urban planning documents considered necessary.
Norms and rules of construction
DBN - building regulations - is an abbreviation Ukrainian document Derzhavnі budіvelnі norms. It is commonly accepted designation. Development and approval of DBN is the responsibility of the central state executive body, which deals with urban planning and architecture - Minregionbud.
SNIP and DBN
In the absence of appropriate DBN can use the building codes (SNP). Many building codes Ukraine uses that were developed during the Soviet Union. They are applicable regulations. construction norms in Ukraine as prescribed in these documents:
- State standards of Ukraine (Derzhavnі standardization of Ukraine (DSTU)).
- State sanitary norms and rules.
Building codes should be followed any developer in the construction of their own home, to choose the right material, such as choosing which gazoblok better to choose. Building codes are not intended to drive into some certain limits. They are really designed to protect and prolong the stay in your home, ensuring comfort and maximum fire safety, not only you, but also its neighbors. The video explains how to build energy-efficient house warm.
What you need to consider when planning the site of SNP
The first portion of the planning area boundaries are determined: set a fence that separates from an adjacent portion and the common areas, according to the established rules.
After installing fences before to build the foundation of the house, do the layout of the site: what and how it will be located on the land. The following structures can be built on the plot: a house, outbuildings (summer kitchen, garage, sauna, greenhouse, shower, toilet, etc.). The composition of the buildings, their size, location and function are defined by local authorities. If you are using a model project, it must be adapted to surprise the property.
The plot can be divided into the following areas:
- Floor area (house and outbuildings to it);
- economic zone (farm building and facilities for the care of house and land);
- seating area (furniture, playground, swimming pool, etc.);
- Lawn-and-garden area (garden, vegetable garden, greenhouse).
A reference for the location of buildings and structures is a fence located on the neighboring property. If the neighbors have not built anything, then they can be to agree the location of future buildings, taking into account the interests of both sides. construction norms in Ukraine, applicable to site planning consists of sanitary and fire regulations. They can be divided into the mandatory and recommended.
Mandatory requirements relating to the distances from the apartment house and a summer kitchen to the other buildings:
- outbuildings for housekeeping area up to 50 square meters - 15 meters;
- compost pit street latrines pit waste - 15 m;
- well for filtering water - 8 m (the processing up to 1 m3 per day), 10m (the processing 1-3 m3 per day);
- septic tank - 5 m (the processing up to 1 m3 per day), 8 m (in the processing 1-3 m3 per day). These requirements apply to the soul.
Basic requirements for limits:
- from home to the red line (the line that limits the total territory) must be a minimum distance of 5-6 meters;
- from the house to the land borders and neighbors driveways boundaries - not less than 3 meters;
- from farm buildings to roads and the red line - at least 5-6 meters.
As for the well and drinking well, then up to them from buildings and structures must be a minimum distance of 20 meters.
According to the fire protection requirements of the structure are divided into categories based on the material of manufacture:
A - the structure of non-combustible materials: stone, concrete, concrete, etc .;
B - the same structure of non-combustible materials with floors and coverings made of wood, protected and treated malogoryuchimi and non-combustible materials.
B - Wooden fence and frame made of any material.
Thus, if you plan to build a house of aerated concrete, and at the neighbors house wooden, between them should be a minimum distance of 15 m. If the neighbor's house and you are planning to be built using the latest technologies, which are classified as A, is allowed between them a distance of 6 meters.
Recommended requirements are determined by local authorities. They relate to rise dimensions, areas of buildings, the width portion of the red line. site fencing should not go beyond the red line. Houses and buildings on the site should be placed in accordance with the requirements of SNIP. Violations of building codes leads to the imposition of fines up to the demolition of buildings and structures.
For the novice developer to meet all building codes is difficult. To get rid of their solutions can be, if you sign a contract to build the house with "KievNovBud" that will take care of all construction issues. The company's specialists will help to choose the most profitable option of building within the financial possibilities of the client.
On the quality of work performed by our specialists, can be seen in the video clip from one of the projects under construction in Kiev. On all performed works have certificates given 5-year warranty. The company can provide all building materials. materials warranty is 50 years. Thus, it is possible to save on building materials since the company provides products and services for supplier prices, without making them extra charge, as only earns the performance of work.
EXISTING RULES construction of private homes
The standards and definitions
The main document that defines the rights and obligations of the owners of the land - the Land Code of Ukraine (hereinafter - the Code). According to Art. 79 of the Code, land is the part of the Earth's surface, having a specific location, boundaries and establishing the right to it. The owner may dispose of the possession of his choice (provided by the Civil Code of Ukraine), but is obliged to observe the purpose of the site.
He has the right to the construction of residential buildings and a number of business facilities, but there is no possibility of construction of premises for commercial purposes. In this regard, the Civil kodeksompredusmotreno term "manor", which includes residential and household structures, surface and underground communications and networks, as well as the perennial greenery (trees and shrubs).
Before starting the design, it should be your own or with the help of professional (architect, landscape designer, superintendent) to conduct pre-project site analysis. Moreover, it is desirable to put on before buying to assess whether it is possible within its boundaries placing all the desired facilities. Later, from planning, there should be division of the territory into functional areas within which the relevant facilities will be available.
In general, the plot can be divided into 4 zones are:
- Residential (it can be placed on not only the main house, but also a guest);
- For household services (within its erect hozblok, additional outside toilet, a workshop, a cellar, etc...);
- For the rest (eg a children's playground, garden, flower beds, area for barbecue);
- Orchard and vegetable garden.
Of course, strict zoning within a small area is virtually impossible, but is recommended to the pursuit of the most compact arrangement of specialized buildings to each other. And hold all four zones are not necessarily by the owner you can do without any of them.
General rules for construction of new and reconstruction of old mansions regulates the Law of Ukraine "On the building and planning areas." In addition, local councils have developed their own rules of construction. They set the requirements for limiting the size of houses, with a total built-up area, the height of the fence area, landscaping and so on. D.
Architectural and construction standards on the minimum allowable distance between the houses and other buildings on the site, as well as individual objects of infrastructure of the village, set in the state construction norms DBN 360-92 ** "City planning and development of urban and rural settlements" (should be paid note that with the introduction of these standards action DBN 360-92 * stopped).
Finally, the main architectural, sanitary and fire-prevention requirements relating to the construction of houses up to three floors and the placement of business and residential buildings on the site are given in DBN 79-92 "Residential buildings for individual builders of Ukraine."
The most important question, which has set itself any future private landlord, - where, in fact, the house is located. Statutory requirements for the construction of residential buildings in one or another part of the plot there is, but there is a recommendation that is best to build it as close as possible to the fence with a street party. This will allow qualitatively to execute area to relax in the backyard, and shorten the distance with the movement of people from the gate to the front door.
It is important to take into account the binding to the red line, that is, establishing the boundaries of an existing or projected street. According to the requirements of DBN 360-92 **, a house must be placed indented from the red lines of highways and main streets not less than 6 meters from the secondary streets and alleys of not less than 3 meters.
Also, the distance from the property line to the house should be at least 3 m. However, experts recommend to add to this distance 2-3 m. This is necessary to ensure that the porch did not go right up to the fence. If the desire or ability to "push back" the house is not present, the porch is better to do by the court. Furthermore, between the guardrail and the dwelling house it is desirable to plant greenery. They largely protect the home from the street dust and noise.
Regulated and the width of the house on the street edge (i.e. along the main fence). However, the general requirements for the country in this regard is not - it all depends on the planning structure of a particular city or area. So that you can learn the standards in local governance architecture.
Another important rule - compliance required distances between residential structures on adjacent sections. Here is dominated by fire-prevention requirements. DBN 79-92 all buildings are classified according to the degree of fire resistance, depending on the material used for construction of bearing and enclosing structures.
Thus, homes of brick, stone and various concrete blocks, and concrete, and I belong to Category II. If applied in such buildings, wooden structure (e.g. as slabs or trusses), they belong to the category III. Finally, the wood and frame building - a category IV.
The distance between the houses of the first two categories must be at least 6 m for the third category, this value is 8 m, while the fourth -. 15 m. It is important to understand that is taken into account more important. Thus, if new construction is planned to brick, but next door is a wooden house, retreat will have a minimum of 15 m. The same need to be measured and in case of any fire resistance category of the building have more than one floor and at least one of them is facing the another of its long side. This is required by the norms of DBN 360-92 **.
It should also be borne in mind that if there is no adjacent buildings, the private home should in any case be at least 1 m from the boundary lines. In this case, none of its design must not protrude over the edge area.
Finally, we must consider that are taken into account the distance between the outer walls of buildings, but in the presence of speakers of more than 1 m of structures - the distance between them.
Positioning of construction of economic and household purposes can be on your own. There is only one limitation - not permitted them the construction of the building line (that is flush with the enclosure section).
Better plan their location away from the fence. Such constructions as baths, hozblok or sheds, commonly disposed in the depth portion. They can be either freestanding or semi-detached house. The rationale may be considered is the location of these buildings, which will protect the house from the gusts often blowing winds in the area. Distances between the farm buildings within an area not regulated by law. There is no requirement for the presence of fire-breaks in between.
However, in this case, the sanitary norms come into effect. According DBN 79-92, away from the windows of an apartment house to street cellar should be not less than 7 m, while the areas intended for keeping domestic animals (cattle, poultry, etc...) - not less than 15 m.
However, to fulfill this requirement, often within a restricted area of the site is difficult or impossible. Therefore, the data allowed the construction of buildings of the area to 50 m2 or adjacent to one- and two-story homes. In this case, living rooms and kitchens must be isolated from them at least three auxiliary or common areas.
By the way, detached outbuildings can be grouped together and be combined, including the likes of the buildings on the neighboring plot of land, by mutual agreement.
Entrance and staircase
Forming their own land, many observe the necessary requirements only within its enclosure and are planting strip along the fence of trees and shrubs. Meanwhile, for this area, there are certain requirements, the main of which consists in that the width of the roadway, running along the section should be at least 3.5 m for roads with one lane and 7 m - with two. These limits are not allowed to decrease due to any structures and plantings. This is important for both road safety and to ensure the passage of special services (fire engine, ambulance, emergency, and so on. N.)
The last requirement is necessary to take into account when designing the entrance to the site. It should be possible passage of fire trucks to the house and access to fire ladders or lift trucks in any room. In this regard, DBN 360-92 ** requires that the minimum passage width to house was 3.4 m. In this arrangement fencing section area is not allowed, air and electric tree planting. Nothing should hinder the passage.
According DBN 79-92, garage can be positioned on the line segment development (both flush with the house and with the fence). Moreover, increasingly garage built into the ground floor of an apartment house. It is important just to open the garage door does not interfere with the free passage of pedestrians and traffic on the street. Planning should consider the following requirements: the distance from the entrance to the garage to the windows of houses, located in the neighborhood, it should be at least 10 meters. It is also important to travel to the garage does not intersect the walkway from the gate to the door of the house.
Finally, the footpaths on the site should provide easy access to all the buildings, and in any weather, and not to hold a large amount of moisture the surface (this is necessary to ensure the safety of movement on them).
NEW RULES housing construction in Ukraine has made ...
After three months in Ukraine will start a new build housing. Ministry of Regional Development approved planning regulations (GOS), though as a whole and approve of market participants and ordinary Ukrainians, however, will lead to a number of not very pleasant consequences. Not without its controversial moments.
The first thing that catches the eye by the developers - new standards is clearly written by the big players. Those who are engaged in the construction of high-grade residential quarters on a "city within a city." Fine the players will have to relocate to the country to remain competitive and offer customers a sane price.
Replacing the small players
The innovation of the building density rate of 450 persons. / Ha, will increase the value of apartments or make unprofitable point construction in existing neighborhoods.
"Previously, there was no specific rules on density. In different areas of density was calculated from its formula. In our opinion, this rule will handle the process of mass housing in the large cities. It will be built only area where a density is low. And vice versa - where the density exceeds the limit, landing another house in existing neighborhoods will be impossible ", - he has noticed in conversation with UBR.ua Development Director Novbud Vyacheslav Pavlov.
Prices for new buildings in the suburbs of Kiev recorded: what will happen next
In theory, an area of 1 ha can be build 25-storey house on 350-400 apartments, which can accommodate up to 800 people. Thus, under the current density of the population in the already constructed blocks (200 to 600 persons. / Ha), to build a house on the free "patch" it will be impossible. Or the need to greatly understate its number of floors: according to preliminary calculations, - a maximum of 16 floors.
"At this rate, in theory, cost-effective for the builder will be the construction of houses and business elite class (for example, club houses) a small number of storeys in the central part of the city", - said Head of Sales UBR.ua mini-city Svitlo Park Alexander Panfilov.
Build the suburb, but will leave the land
It is worth considering that, for example, 5 km zone around Kiev already densely built up. That is, the small developers will be able to develop the direction of farther away from the capital.
According to experts, to date, within the boundaries of Kiev and around the capital from 1600 to 1800 hectares of land can be used for residential construction: these are the areas where there is no production of harmful and which are currently hardly used.
The practice of construction in the suburbs shows that building spot (ie, directly to the place of accommodation House) - it is only 1/4 of the territory allotted for the construction, 3/4 portion - is the surrounding area. But in the capital and other cities over one million is allocated for development often land in 15-20 acres, and of course it being built on the borders, even contrary to the current regulations.
Where in Ukraine sold the cheapest apartments
New same requirements oblige the builder to leave around the house a solid plot of vacant land, which is directly proportional to the height of new building erected. For example, if a house above 11 floors, it should take only 30% of the total area. A 4 etazhka can accommodate a 45% isolated for the construction site.
This innovation, according to experts, will increase the cost of new projects by at least 10%. And this is without taking into account rising in price of construction materials. But on the other hand - and the buyer will receive a house, and a large local area.
However, the builders themselves will also be able to save - on the construction of kindergartens. If before it had to be a separate building (min. 0.5 hectares of additional land), it is now possible to attach them or even locate on the first two floors of the apartment complex.
Parking will not pull
Another important rule that completely change the ideology of a residential building, is a restriction on placement of parking lots in residential neighborhoods. To date, only about 5 Kiev projects of integrated development on a "city within a city" of the domestic space, free from cars. Now, in order to implement the construction project, part of the land developer is obliged to take under the spacious parking. This can be problematic for many companies.
"It is no secret that the construction of parking has always been one of the most problematic issues. Developers understand, to ensure future residents parking lots, you have to invest huge amounts of money because, for example, an open parking area, to ensure that the tenants of the house a sufficient number of parking spaces can be 2 times the area of the house. Of course, the construction of small projects (up to 5 buildings) can be simply unprofitable, "- says Alexander Panfilov.
It is quite possible, builders say that the inability to build a legal "wash" the field of the market a few dozen medium and small companies. Leaving only the big players, which in its strategy focused on large-scale projects, including - with spacious parking.
But the new rules are unlikely to relieve the residents of new residential areas the problems of finding a place for the night of the car.
Debts of the communal will knock out a new
"Of course, the prohibition of parking in residential neighborhoods will improve the quality of life of the end user, but at the same time - will exacerbate the problem of parking. To at least partially satisfy everyone, you need to increase the standard of parking spaces on at least 50% (currently 30%) ", - Vyacheslav Pavlov said.
In addition, experts say, the prescribed requirements is left blank in a specific location of the parking lots. The concept of "Yards" is very extensible. After all, if you take a conditional area where the building is located in the center, the house territory is around him. It turns out, build a parking lot for her is impossible.
Anyway, the buyer has received the promise of parking outside the yard. And now stroykompaniyam will need to find a way and make a profit, and customer satisfaction.
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State building norms of Ukraine DBN 360-92
Ministry of Regional Development, Construction and Housing and Utilities reported about updating state building codes.
Innovations include administering maximum percent land development to prevent its continuous development along the entire perimeter without improvement for residents.
Thus, according to a new DBN for designing houses 11 floors above the maximum allowable percentage of land development is 30% and the remaining 70% are assigned to the arrangement of green spaces, recreation areas and playgrounds. For 9-10-storey building houses a maximum percentage of 35% for 5-8 storey - 40%, for a 4-storey - 45%. During the construction of multi-level residential buildings in calculating the average number of storeys of the building is taken.
This rule applies only to new construction. When reconstruction of blocks of building these indicators do not apply and are accepted in accordance with the existing size of the land and the percentage of building area.
Updated DBN "Planning and construction of the territories" will be approved shortly. The project is designed to replace the DBN DBN 360-92 ** "Town. Planning and construction of urban and rural settlements ", DBN B.2.4-1- 94" Planning and development of rural communities ", DBN B.2.4-3- 95" General plans of agricultural enterprises ", DBN B.2.4-4- 97" Planning and development of small agricultural enterprises and peasant (farmer) economy, "DBN B.1-2- 95" The composition, content, procedure development, coordination and approval of integrated transport schemes for cities in Ukraine ", SNIP II-89-80« Master plans of industrial enterprises. "
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the construction of housing The Ukrainian government standards developer Minregion GOS