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MOSCOW GOVERNMENT
Moskomarkhitektura

Norman
in design and construction
system of the building "UNICON"
USING PRODUCTS Polystyreneconcretes

1999

Foreword

1. Develop a
team composed of: prof. Grigoriev Yu P. Eng. Grinevsky AA, Senior Scientist,
Ph.D. Maksimenko VA, Ing. Nikitin EE, Ing. Surkov V., Arch., K.arh.
Yakhkind SI (MNIITEP);

prof., Ph.D. Rakhmanov VA, Ing. Kazarina SK,
Senior Scientist, Ph.D. Melikhova VI, senior researcher, Ph.D. Lemysh LL, Senior Scientist, Ph.D.
Dovzhik VG (VNIIzhelezobeton).

2. prepared for approval
and publication of the Office of the planning stage and specifications
Moscomarchitecture (architects Zobnin AP, Revkevich LP, engineers Shchipanov
YB, Shevjakov IY)

3. Agreed: Complex
of perspective development of the city, TSNIISK. Kucherenko, UGPS Moscow Police,
Mosgosekspertizy, Sanitary Inspection Center of Moscow.

4. Approved by: the order of the
Moscow Committee of 07.02.99, the number. 91.

CONTENT

Introduction. 2

Regulations and regulatory documents .. 2

Explanatory note. 3

Legend. eight

Nomenclature of polystyrene blocks. 9

Schematic diagram of the "Unicon" system houses. A cross-section. ten

Schematic diagram of the "Unicon" system houses. Plan. eleven

A fragment of the facade wall. EXAMPLE layout Proc. eleven

"Unicon" system of houses recommended dimensions and parameters. 12

Normal 4-n-1. 12

Explanation of the 4-n-1. 13

Normal 4N-2. 13

Normal 4N-2.
Section 1-1. 14

Normal 4N-2.
Section 2-2. 14

Explanation of 4N-2. 15

Normal 4N-3. 15

Explanation of 4N-3. sixteen

Normal 4N-4. sixteen

Normal 4N-5. 17

Notes to 4N-4
and 5-4N. 17

Normal 4N-6. 18

Explanation of 4N-6
(4-n-15) 19

Normal 4N-7. nineteen

Normal 4N-8. 20

Normal 4N-9. 20

Normal 4N-10. 21

Normal 4N-11. 21

Notes to 8-4N,
4N-9, 10-4N, 4N-11. 22

Normal 4N-12. 22

Normal 4N-12.
Section 1-1. 23

Explanation of 4N-12. 23

Normal 4N-13. 24

Normal 4N-14. 25

Normal 4N-15. 25

Normal 4N-16. 26

Normal 4N-17. 26

Explanation of 4N-normals 16,
4N-17. 27

Normal 4N-18. 27

Explanation of the normal 18-4N. 28

Normal 4N-19.
Possible combinations of polystyrene blocks and effective masonry. 28

Normal 4N-20.
The principle of reinforcement overlap. 29

Explanation of 4N-20. 29

Normal 4N-21.
The principle of the reinforcement frames .. 30

Explanation of 4N-21. 31

Normal 4N-22.
The principle of reinforcement of front crossbars. 31

Explanation of 4N-22. 32

1. Node 32

2. Node 33

3. Node 33

4. Node 34

5. Node 34

6. Node 35

Node 7, 8. 35

Node 9, 10. 36

11. Node 36

12. Node 37

Assembly 13. The design of the roof. 37

I Annex
extract of technical conditions
for blocks of polystyrene solid wall. 38

Appendix ii original data vniizhelezobetona on
polystyrene products and structures 42 ..

Appendix iii. SBP-10
reinforcement. 46

Appendix iv.
Thermal calculation .. 48

Appendix v.
Instructions for installation of curtain wall technology system "Unicon". 51

Appendix vi. Hinged mounting forests. 56

Content

INTRODUCTION

These normal,
intended for the design and construction organizations, provide fundamental
solutions of houses "UNICON" system curtain wall of
solid polystyrene blocks.

In a particular design of
technical solutions may vary depending on the characteristics of
the designed object.

Normal includes two
subsystems: monolithic reinforced concrete load-bearing structures and exterior
building envelope.

It is allowed
to use normals and for other purposes with an appropriate justification,
for example, for internal walling.

They take into account the normal tolerances of the
clutch and for the execution of the monolithic concrete works, but do not give poryadovkoy
masonry, which is mandatory in a particular design.

Normals also provide
for the designation of the axes of the building, which are common, and for the longitudinal
exterior walls shall be appointed on the basis of specific features of the project.

They assume normal
development of monolithic reinforced concrete structures only after the decision
on the form and structure of external fences.

Apart from the usual static
calculations for the use of "UNICON" needed calculations
front wall (fachwerk facade walls) to wind loads, including in
the process of its construction.

When using a normal
liner front wall other (except bricks) facing materials
must take into account the possible difference in the shrinkage of the material and wall cladding.

The technical solutions
presented in the most effective normals for the exterior walls of buildings,
erected inside the building or using outboard mounting forests.

These normal does not
consider other subsystems "YUNIKON" system, for example with bearing and
self-supporting walls and the walls of the hollow cross-members.

REGULATORY AND REGULATORY DOCUMENTS

1. SNP II-22-81. Stone and
reinforced masonry structures.

2. Benefit for the design
of stone and reinforced masonry structures TSNIISK. Kucherenko.

3. The blocks of
polystyrene solid wall. Specifications TU
5741-159-00284807-96 * (modified № 1, 2). Account VNIIstandartom
Gosstandart of Russia of 05.27.96 № 200/012291.

4. Plates Polystyrene
thermal insulation. Specifications TU
5760-160-00284807-96. Account VNIIstandartom State Standard of Russia
27.05.96 № 200/012290.

5. Hygiene Certificate
05RTS / 562 of 23.05.96. Building blocks of polystyrene solid density
400 - 500 kg / m 3 .

6. Hygiene Certificate
05RTS / 563 of 23.05.96. Polystyrene Plates insulating density 150
- 270 kg / m 3 .

7. The certificate of conformity to the
wall blocks of polystyrene number PP.9001.1.4.0063 № 00018075 GOST
State Standard of Russia from 15.12.1997.

8. The certificate of conformity at the
plate, heat insulating polystyrene number PP.9001.1.4.0064 № 00018074 GOST State Standard of
Russia from 15.12.1997.

9. Compositions Mineral
adhesive product of osobolegkih concretes "YUNIKON" system.
Specifications TU 2513-203-00284807-98. Account VNIIstandartom
State Standard of Russia 28.10.98 № 200/020126.

10. Hygiene certificate
number 50.ER.03.570.P.00027.0.98 from 12.06.98, the State Department of
Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance.

11. Conclusion on the application of
the adhesive composition of the CMC of the Institute of Hygiene them. Erismann from 12.06.98 № 03 / MP-28.

12. SNIP 3.03.01-87 "Bearing and
enclosing structures."

13. MGSN 2.01-99
"Energy efficiency in buildings".

14. SNIP II-3-79 * (ed. 1998),
"Building Thermal Physics"

EXPLANATORY NOTE

A COMMON PART

Residential home system
"YUNIKON" structurally are monolithic
reinforced-concrete load-bearing system in the form of flat frames spaced with a wide pitch
and the combined ceiling and facade hidden or open bolts. When
this frame can be located on the transverse axes of the building or offset with axes.
Overall stability and work on the horizontal load is provided by frames and
the core hardness. Foundations - reinforced concrete strip for low
or box for high-rise buildings. The space inside the frame when
MMA is filled pictures necessary. Partitions of piece
materials. The outer walls of the hinged polystyrene blocks plastered
with stucco or two sides inside and outside lined bricks.
Warming of the roof made of polystyrene concrete slabs.

As the material of
the partitions is also possible to use polystyrene products.

Design solutions

The basis of
the architectural and planning solutions for multi-storey sections (25 floors)
monolithic apartment buildings "UNICON" system is a step-bearing
vertical structures, frames 6.0 - 7.2 m, providing an opportunity to
subsequent alterations of flats and sections without breaking the load-bearing structures.
For this purpose, the vertical utilities (ventilation ducts,
heating risers, water and sanitation) as close to
unchanged bearing structures.

The system provides
various types of transformation of apartments: one-level and two levels;
transformation within the same apartment; transformation within the two apartments,
including their association; transformation within the three apartments.

The structural system of a residential
house and allows you to perform the transformation within a section. It is possible to
change the ratio of types of apartments in the section due to the transformation with pairwise
change room apartment.

Transformation inside the apartment
is achieved by changing the position of partitions inside apartment that
allows you to get different areas of basic facilities such as a kitchen,
living room and bedroom. In addition, there is the possibility of apartments of various
room temperature (at the same their area), including the construction of enfilade
apartment association premises (kitchen-dining-living room,
living room, hall, office). By combining on the floor two or three apartments
is possible to obtain multi-room apartments with the number of living rooms from two to
seven. With this association (in cases of conservation in the apartments of the overlying
floors typical layout) in the merged local apartments previously occupied by the
kitchens run ancillary or additional space, for example
for household purposes (closet or laundry room), office and others.

Planning decisions apartments
include a kitchen with natural light, which can be combined
sliding partition from the living room.

Bathrooms in bedroom
apartments combined in one bedroom - separate. In three-, four- and
five-room flats provided, as a rule, two sanitary
premises - toilet with washbasin at the entrance, close to the kitchen, and a
bathroom with toilet in the bedroom area. The apartments are provided the mezzanine,
podstolya under the sink and built-in wardrobes.

Adopted constructive
solutions allow you to create different versions of the composite construction of
facades.

The basis of the plan gives a large
vertical wall partitioning the array. Facing the "cheeks" loggia allows
to create continuous pylons, emphasizing major step bearing structures.

This theme is used in combination
with the effect of "large bay" - the introduction of the plane facade projecting
volumes.

On the facades also used
reception rhythmic repetition polulodzhy having a rectangular shape plan.

The horizontal division of
the facade of the height of the building carried out at the expense of spatial elements - loggias
and bay windows. Horizontal division introduced at the base of the house and its
completion, as well as the different height levels. Subject stressed overhanging
plane boundary wall at the level of the attic.

The increasing complexity of the rhythm
of building facades of the structural system at home is also possible due to
the introduction of various forms of balconies on corbels home. Possible to obtain
a facade composition without isolating and horizontal and vertical articulations for
by introducing bay windows at different height levels.

Vestibule-entrance area in
each section of the house has a two-way orientation: entrance lobby
oriented to one side of the house, the emergency exit from nezadymlyaemoy
staircase type 2 and out of the collecting chamber - to another.

In this entrance hall
of each section is achieved within the main volume of houses in one constructive
step. To ensure availability of apartments in the building of each section
provides increased width vestibules, and space for subsequent
installation of hoists for moving the wheelchair on the differential level
in the vestibule.

Technical underground
is used for routing utilities. The variant with
the placement of the end in the section below the technical level of the underground space for
parking for 25 cars intended only for residents of the house. When
linking the house with the variant of the decision of the underground space
is planned to develop additional measures to address the issues
of engineering maintenance of parking and environmental protection of the living environment.

Mezhkvartirnye walls can
be solved from the brick thickness of 25 or 12 cm with plaster on both sides, with
total thickness of 18 cm mezhkvartirnyh walls - equal to the thickness of bearing
constructions. Wall brick toilets thickness of 6.5 cm or 12 cm.

Partition walls:
plasterboard skeleton obshivnye - thickness of 16 cm, and in the frames between the carrier
elements 18 cm thickness of 12 cm bricks with plaster.

An acceptable alternative is
the use for mezhkvartirnyh and interior walls of small-size blocks of
polystyrene, foamed concrete or stones "Besser" type with
the type of "drive" plaster.

Interior finishing of apartments
made taking into account environmental requirements for decoration.

Residential house is provided
with heating, ventilation, water supply, sewage, vertical,
transport, waste disposal systems, electrical and lighting,
communication and alarm systems, automated system of electricity,
automation nezadymlyaemosti systems elements integrated dispatch
communication.

Engineering system
equipment taken in accordance with current standards, with
the latest achievements of the Moscow Government № 99-ARH from
31.01.97, the

Fire prevention measures
are developed in accordance with the requirements for the design of the system
with the fire protection of evacuation routes in high-rise residential buildings
nezadymlyaemymi stairwells type 2 for buildings up to 17 floors with
Floor entrances to them through a common vnekvartirny corridor and elevator hall
according MGSN 3.01-96 " residential
buildings. "

Nezadymlyaemost major
evacuation routes provided by the following design decisions:

floor entrances
nezadymlyaemye stairwells with air overpressure from the elevator halls;

on all floors in the openings,
leading from the elevator lobbies in the stairwell, set
self-closing doors with a seal in the arches;

elevator lobbies on all floors
are separated from the common corridors vnekvartirnyh self-closing doors to
seal the arches;

to ensure the normal
operation self-closing devices (coils) on the door elevator lobbies and
"aprons" stairwells are not installed, the value of the gap between
the door leaf and the floor covering not more than 15 mm;

vestibule entry doors in
the apartment and the windows of the stairwell fitted gasket;
staircase single-band adjustment.

As second tracks
evacuation in each apartment, starting from the 6th floor, provides balconies or
balcony with a hollow partition width of 1.2 m. This section provides
a ladder type 3 with access to it from the elevator hall, leading to floor
2nd floor.

For buildings up to 25 floors
inclusive should include nezadymlyaemye stairwells type 1.

The system is designed for
areas with the usual background noise, the sound level does not exceed:

in the daytime - 65
dB;

at night - 55
dBA.

Under conditions specific
urban situation envisages the acoustical prediction
on the specific noise characteristics and the defined option filling window
(door) openings in the external walls: DSC 1500 produced PVC-1; Approved
ORTSHV window type. Fitting woodwork nodes shown in № sheets 69, 70.

Noise protection facilities,
adjacent and on the switchboard in the corner sections provide:

selection room
switchboard additional walls;

installation of electrical control walls
on its own foundations;

implementation of additional
ceiling (similar to the structure adopted in the P44 series).

Removing the noise from the elevator
installations is achieved separation of solid elements of mines and floors over
them from the supporting structures of the building resilient gaskets and air gaps.

As part of the energy-saving
measures can be envisaged, such as the installation of thermostats RTD
on heating devices; performance of window and door frames of the heat shield
PVC 1500 reduced resistance to heat transfer in accordance with standards ... Ro
0.55 - 0.56 m 2 ° C / W.

BEARING STRUCTURES

The main load-bearing
structures of reinforced concrete pylons are bearing walls, stiffening core
Separating stairs and elevator unit, uncut slabs and foundation
slab. The carrier system can be considered as the framework of bond, in which
the vertical loads are perceived beams, pillars and the core hardness,
and the horizontal - the core hardness and pylons that are combined into a single system
disk overlap. Covering flat, provided with bolts in the frame plane (pylons)
and, if desired contour beams providing device exterior
walling and additional support slabs. Recommended
dimensions of structures cm. № sheet 25.

Balconies and loggias, as well as
maintaining their edge portions are separated from the main structure
termorazemami providing the necessary thermal characteristics of
external walling.

Non-core bearing structures

Minority carrier
designs are designs of stairways and elevator shafts. Stairs are performed
in-situ reinforced concrete prefabricated: site - reinforced concrete, marches -
made of reinforced concrete, performed at the factory or construction site.

Elevator shafts - monolithic
reinforced concrete cut from the main bearing structures (by laying
polystyrene plates between the main supporting structure and the elevator
shaft), or by creating an air layer by the use
of recoverable formwork. Floor of the engine room, which is based on the lifting
equipment, based on the design of the elevator shaft. The variant of precast
concrete lift shafts.

External walling

As outer
fences used masonry blocks of polystyrene with plaster
inside and outside with a plaster or the inside and outside facing brick.

The underground portion of the outer
enclosure are performed in situ reinforced concrete with thermal insulation within
the depth of soil freezing brickwork with a lining of expanded polystyrene
slabs or prefabricated insulated polystyrene concrete.

Masonry walls hinged
design is based on each floor slab, and in the place of "deaf"
curtain walls - a specially organized console termorazemami.

Polystyrene - new in
domestic construction material based on foam polystyrene granules,
cement, mixing water and chemical additives having a high
feasibility and operating performance.

Volumetric mass
of polystyrene between 150 - 750 kg / m 3 ; optimal interval
bulk density based on the strength and thermal performance - from 250 to
500 kg / m 3 .

Durability polystyrene in
compression within 0.2 - 1.5 MPa.

The calculated coefficient
of thermal conductivity (for the operating conditions B) in the range 0.06 - 0.16 W / m ° C,
which provides phase II requirements of energy saving.

Polystyrene relates to a
class of non-flammable and nonflammable material (degree trudnosgoraemosti
increases with its bulk density).

These properties allow the
use of polystyrene blocks sploshnotelye (application VNIIZhBa number
94005054/33 on copyright certificate of 04/25/96) as the wall forming
material for curtain walls, performs simultaneously the function of insulation.

Polystyrene allows
to form a wall with various geometry (shape in plan, floor height,
openings dimensions, niche-otdavliny, protrusions, rods) of the limited range of
starting product, provided improvements to building blocks manual or
mechanized tool.

Thus West may
be formed both by recesses (cutting) on the building material and for
through the use of the blocks in the right place at thicknesses.

The protrusions 30 - 40 mm
are formed by extending blocks with respect to the main front
surface and one third of their thickness.

Protrusions 40 mm can be
formed due to local thickening of the plaster layer on the grid or sticker
thin slabs of polystyrene.

The walls of the polystyrene
allows to arrange the wiring in a hidden indent, arranged on the
building before the internal finishing layer.

The main solution is
plaster on a grid of 20 mm thick cement-sand or a mixed
solution with a polymer additives with subsequent painting weatherproof
compositions. Perhaps the use of overhead prefabricated decorative elements made of
gypsum, composite materials, brick, etc.

Above the openings used
horizontally arranged blocks with internal reinforcement flat or
spatial light reinforcing cage.

Polystyrene
nonflammable material. When unexposed a slow
degradation of the material caused by melting granules of polystyrene
foam, which does not manage to break down to a degree which represents a threat to
the building. Danger of harmful gases are emitted during melting of
the granules. To prevent this the wall is secured by the inner and outer
sides of the plaster layer thickness of not less than 20 mm, reinforced steel,
fine mesh, eliminating delamination of the plaster layer during fire
exposure and penetration of the flame or hot air into the resulting gap.
For the secure fastening of the metal mesh used plaster mesh or
anchor of a flexible reinforcing steel stacked in masonry joints.

Blocks on slopes of window and
door openings otshtukaturivayutsya cement-sand mortar thickness of not less than
50 mm.

In the front part of the basement
walls and first (residential) building floors (at a height of not less than 3.0 m.) Application of
polystyrene in order to avoid mechanical damage to the wall is not recommended.
The wall is formed of an effective masonry or otherwise.

INTERNAL non-structural

Inner cladding
structure are made of frame-obshivnyh systems inside apartment
walls of small and sredneshtuchnyh mezhkvartirnyh elements for walls and
bathrooms.

Ventilation system - from
gypsum concrete block types, mounted through holes in ceilings or
small sized materials.

anticorrosive protection

Corrosion protection of
embedded parts and connections in the external interface to the internal nodes of the stack
of residential buildings constructions carried out in accordance with SNIP 2.0311-85
"Protection of building constructions against corrosion." In this case, possible
replacement of the tread ground XB-784 with zinc filler to less scarce
and less labor-intensive materials.

One of such materials for
use in the summer, autumn and spring is a polyurethane
tread the soil of the German firm Stilpeynt.

In all cases, the embedded
detail, in addition, must be protected by a layer of cement-sand mortar on
class Portland cement is not lower than B15 (grade 150) at least 20 mm thick.

CONCRETE

Concrete class B25 and B30.
Perhaps the use of high-quality concrete. In accordance with the information
letter NIIZhB from 29.11.95 number 18-349 recommend the use of high-quality
concrete grade B90 to 120 MPa for various kinds of facilities, including
multistory buildings frames. These concretes based on standard cements marks
(M500, M550, M600), which flow does not exceed the consumption of cement in the concrete grade
B45 (600 kgf / cm 2 ).

On the recommendation of NIIZhB
strength and deformation characteristics of concrete classes up to B60
inclusive may be taken in accordance with existing regulations (SNIP 2.03.01-84).

Currently, in Moscow
for the mass production of high-quality concrete plant equipped with two number 3
plant "Mosinzhbeton" and mobile plant "Mosinzhstroya".

FITTINGS

As a primary compressed
(pylons) and applies tension reinforcement reinforcing steel class AIII
diameter of 8 to 40 mm with rated resistance:

stretchable R s = 365 MPa = 3750 kg / cm 2 ;

compression R sg = 365 MPa = 3750 kg / cm 2 .

As minor
reinforcement armature accepted class AI with the calculated resistance
to stretching, compression R s = R sc =
2850 kgf / cm 2 .

FORMWORK
state enterprise "Metallostroydetal", Stary Oskol.

Formwork - a metal
deck.

The height of the panels, to which
is added the height of the superstructure elements used, if necessary,
allows to erect the walls of three sizes: 2.58; 2.78 and 3.08 m.

The use of special angle
elements ensures erection of walls of any thickness and orthogonal
orientations, and the stair and elevator shafts sizes are multiples of 100 mm.

These parameters and
the possibility of meeting the formwork in the project dimensions and forms of
supporting structures, carried out in-situ reinforced concrete.

Formwork rearranged with
the help of light-duty crane. Boards of the same type used for
the construction of floors, using as suppora prefabricated tables
for stacking them slab formwork.

Solid formwork with sheet
are jointed structure: sheet deck ribbed frame
of curved profile of the sheet, the sheet is welded to the deck to impart
the necessary load capacity and rigidity; skeleton of beams, mounted
orthogonally to the ribs and bolted to the ribs.

Wall formwork has
a major dimension of height 2580 mm in height with transoms 200 and 500 mm.

As the end elements
used vertical ledges inserted between the shields and lockable
special connections.

For the formation of door and
window openings are special inserts with adjustable sizes.

For concrete slabs
prefabricated metal structures are used - Table with telescopic
racks equipped with wheels, allowing you to use the formwork as a
tunnel. Racks allow you to adjust the table height from 2500 to 3300 mm. K
tables attached deck with metal or wooden boards.

In order to provide convenience
and safety of conducting works formwork bracket kit for working
platforms and bridges speakers. The installation of 1 m 2 shuttering
requires 0.25 cel. hours.

WORKS
on the construction of monolithic concrete constructions and walling

Concrete to the construction site
delivered with a truck mixer concrete plants (mixers) and unloaded in
special containers (tubs), which valve is delivered to the site of concrete placement in a
pre-assembled formwork.

The monolithic reinforced concrete
flat slab concreted foundation formless method on
prepared substrate cards having mesh limiters. Monolithic
walls and floors are concreted floor by floor with the shield casing,
transposes the tower crane.

To seal the concrete
standard vibrators used.

When laying concrete at
ambient temperatures from 0.0 to -10,0 ° C are used antifreeze
additives; at a temperature of below -10,0 ° C is used elektroprogrev via
electrodes installed in the formwork before the concrete walls and floors.

As reinforcement of the walls and
ceilings used hot rolled armature classes AI and AIII
diameter of 8 to 40 mm, and the diameter of the mounting fixture 3 - 5 mm class
VrI.

Armature supplied to
the building site in bulk and mounted separate rods fixable
binding wire. The main type of reinforcement joints - overlap. For compounds
armature diameter 25 - 40 mm in the base plate and beams used tub
welding steel tamperproof forms. For certain types of structures, e.g.,
girders and beams can be used in combined reinforcement predetermined flat
or spatial frames on site. Lifting fixture to the mounting
horizon made the tower crane.

Go to the next
assembly horizon defined by the design of works, but not earlier than seven
days after laying the concrete slab of the previous horizon.

Siding
design built mainly with slabs after the concrete
slabs the necessary strength. Delivery of polystyrene blocks in the
masonry horizons in containers tower cranes, lifts
or hoists to be installed in the hinged forests.

If there is a support system
of external concrete walls, stoning units and height of buildings, not
allowing the use for the purposes of external cladding Extra forests or
inappropriate use of them apply hinged timber. See Annex VI.

Inner cladding structures
erected after concreting overlaps, in connection with which they are made of
small and mid-size elements "manual" method.

Ventbloki marches stairs and
railings elevator shafts are mounted with the help of tower crane through the holes in
the ceiling, allowing them to pass through several floors.

LEGEND

REINFORCED CONCRETE

Polystyreneconcretes

BRICK

PLASTER

STYROFOAM

POLYURETHANE

WOOD

MASTIC SEALANT

JOINT MASONRY

number NODE

number SHEET

RANGE Polystyrene blocks

type of
unit

SKETCH

mark

sizes
mm

class
of compressive strength

brand
of medium density

Weight, kg

L

AT

H

rows of blocks

RBU-10

595

375

295

In 1.0

In 0.75

D350

23.3

RBU-11

295

375

295

In 1.0

In 0.75

D350

11.6

RBU-12

595

295

375

In 0.5

In 0.35

D250

16.6

RBU-13

295

295

375

In 0.5

In 0.35

D250

8.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

of bridge

SBP-10

2395

180

295

In 1.0

In 0.75

D350

44.5

SBP-11

1795

180

295

In 1.0

In 0.75

D350

33.4

SBP-12

1195

180

295

In 1.0

In 0.75

D350

22.2

SBP-13

2395

180

235

In 1.0

In 0.75

D350

37.7

SBP-14

1795

180

235

In 1.0

In 0.75

D350

27.7

SBP-15

1195

180

235

In 1.0

In 0.75

D350

18.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

pillar blocks

SBPr-10

595

375

295

In 1.0

In 0.75

D350

22.4

SBPr-11

295

375

295

In 1.0

In 0.75

D350

10.7

SBPr-12

595

295

375

In 0.5

In 0.35

D250

16.1

SBPr-13

295

295

375

In 0.5

In 0.35

D250

7.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SBPr-14

595

375

295

In 1.0

In 0.75

D350

21.5

SBPr-15

295

375

295

In 1.0

In 0.75

D350

9.8

SBPr-16

595

295

375

In 0.5

In 0.35

D 250

7.0

SBPr-17

295

295

375

In 0.5

In 0.35

D 250

7.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Remarks:

1. Selection of strength class
Compressive made in the design.

CONCEPT RESIDENTIAL
SYSTEMS "UNICON". CROSS SECTION

1. The fundamental plate

2. Monolithic wall
tehpodpolya fences

3. The flat frame

4. Overlap

5. Front bolt

6. Hinged external
walling

7. thermofiller.
Termorazemy

PRINCIPAL
SCHEME RESIDENTIAL SYSTEMS "UNICON". PLAN

3. The flat frame

4. Overlap

5. Front bolt

6. Hinged external
walling

7. thermofiller.
Termorazemy

8. The kernel hardness

Fragment
facade walls. EXAMPLE Sa LAYOUTS

RECOMMENDED DIMENSIONS AND
PARAMETERS RESIDENTIAL SYSTEMS "UNICON"

Table of recommended dimensions and parameters "UNICON" system of houses

№№
claims

Dimensions
Options

designation

U
measurement

The values of
the dimensions, parameters

one.

Steps in the longitudinal
direction

L

mm

3600, 4200, 4800, 5400,
6000, 6600, 7200

2.

The span of frames

l

mm

100 'n

3.

floor height

H

mm

2800, 3000, 3300, 3600,
4200

four.

The thickness of the slabs

δ n

mm

140, 160, 180, 200, 220

five.

Wall Thickness (frames)

δ p

mm

140, 180, 200, 220

6.

The length of the frame struts

l p

mm

600, 900, 1200, 1600

7.

The height of the crossbar frame

h p

mm

H - 2200

eight.

The span of frames in the axes

of L p

mm

300 'n

9.

number of floors

N

PC

9 - 25

ten.

The distance between the
expansion joints of not more than

of L t

m

100

NORMAL
4H-1

NOTES TO 4H-1

Normal 4H-1 is
a basic decision of the outer wall (vertical section through a window
aperture) of polystyrene blocks, lined with brick facade side
with jointing seam (without plaster front surface) and a plaster
inside.

In podokonnoj parts
stacked three rows of units with ligation sutures, which corresponds to the nominal
height of the window opening 1500 mm. The possibility of inserting in the window sill of the wall
four rows of blocks that corresponds to the nominal height of the window opening 1200
mm.

In nadokonnoy part window
opening uneven stacked two webs providing education
quarter concealing frame window unit and allow the device open
cladding pins, sensing the vertical load of the front walls and
ceilings.

At this low web
is laid on a pad of polystyrene (brick).

Face crossbar facade
insulated effective insulation thickness of 100 mm.

Part brick outer lining
within the height of the facade and the jumper pins rests on a metal
bridge having a bearing zones broadened portions.

Brick lining at
portions between overlay is adhered to polystyrene blocks when
a floor is resting on the sheet metal, located in the top level
of overlap and welded to mortgage ledgers facade detail. Brick
masonry furthermore associated with them at welds of polystyrene blocks
with steel reinforcing cage (grids).

A possible embodiment of
the vertical anchoring brick lining is its bearing on the steel
corner welded to the mortgage details facade bolt disposed at its
end face (on the normal is shown in the lower overlapping).

Metal parts (except for
reinforcing cages or nets) are reliably protected against corrosion.

The working documentation
is required to specify a poryadovkoy polystyrene blocks and brick
lining. It should be borne in mind that the masonry joints and
polystyrene blocks must match the level and location of support
metal parts can be in masonry joints, and the sawn grooves
brick.

NORMAL
4H-2

NORMAL
4H-2. Section 1-1

NORMAL
4H-2. Section 2-2

NOTES TO 4H-2

Normal 4H-2 is
a basic decision of the outer wall (vertical section through a window
aperture) of polystyrene blocks, lined with brick facade side
with jointing seam (without plaster front surface) and a plaster
inside.

Read more:   DESIGN OF LIVING The standard apartment

Normal 4H-2 is identical to
the normal 4H-1 with the difference that the insulation cladding pins effective
insulation is not made outside facade pins in 4H-1, and inside the
deadbolt.

In this case, two bolts
are connected by dowels arranged in increments of about 1200 mm.

This solution ensures
a more reliable operation of the metal support structures (not to pass through the layer
of insulation), the entire bearing polystyrene blocks to the front crossbar,
but complicates the construction beams, impairs thermal characteristics
wall and usually leads to a non-modular horizontal layout blocks
requiring their clipping in vertical monolithic concrete walls.

A range of indicators
normal 4H-4H-1 and 2 can be considered equivalent.

To improve the thermal
performance connecting wall tabs may decrease in width as
corresponding justification strength calculations.

NORMAL
4H-3

NOTES TO 4H-3

Normal 4H-3 represents
a fundamental solution of the outer wall (vertical section through the balcony
door) of polystyrene blocks coated on the front side of a brick with
grouting (without plaster front surface) and the plaster with the inner
side.

As elements of the lower
part of the wall (threshold) is used the effective bricklaying with warming
effective insulation (Styrofoam).

As part of the opening nadokonnoy
stacked two uneven jumpers providing education quarter,
hides the frame of the balcony door, and allow the device to open the facade
beams, sensing the vertical load on the walls, floor and balcony
slabs.

The balcony slab is separated from the
cladding layer crossbar effective insulation thickness of 100 mm and is connected to the
façade bolt splines spaced about 1200 mm apart from each
other.

Part of the external cladding in
the range of height of the facade and the jumper pins rests on a metal
bridge having a bearing zones broadened portions (similar to the 4H-1).

In normal 4H-3 shows also
a fundamental solution of the balcony fencing brick precluding
reinforced zone formed when setting fence directly on
a reinforced concrete balcony slab (loge). In this step, with broad bearing
transverse walls must work to eliminate both vertical fencing
console unit horizontal metal beam-pins located at
the top of the barriers, fastened at the ends of the elements
transverse walls ( "cheeks" balcony or loggia).

Metal structures
require thorough and reliable corrosion protection.

NORMAL 4H-4

NORMAL
4H-5

NOTES TO 4H-4 and 4H-5

Normals 4H-4 and 4H-5
represent the basic decision of the outer wall (vertical sectional view
of the window opening and deaf portion wall) of the polystyrene blocks,
coated on the front side of a brick with joints jointing (without plaster
front surface) in cases where the front side buildings are located
(carriers) monolithic reinforced concrete walls.

In such cases, slab
overlap discharged cantilevered over the edge front surface of a monolithic
reinforced concrete wall with a device in a cantilevered portion termorazema as
effective insulation. Thus two of the console are interconnected
by dowels being located at a distance of around 1200 mm apart.

In podokonnoj parts
stacked three rows of units with ligation sutures, which corresponds to the nominal
height of the window block 1500 mm.

In the embodiment, "hollow
walls" 9 stacked blocks with transoms of polystyrene cut in
case of need.

In nadokonnoy parts
stacked raznovysotnyh two webs providing education quarter
concealing frame window unit and allow laid over bridges
(sliced) part of the polystyrene blocks.

Facing brick nadokonnoy
part of the wall is performed on a metal crosspiece having a bearing zones
broadened portions.

Land facade having a
reinforced belt (at the level of overlap) may be faced with the shredded
brick simulating solid masonry façade wall. Thus
the cut bricks as well as the other facing bricks are connected to
the adjacent material using adhesives.

This version of the wall most
simply solved in the presence of balconies or loggias, allowing to carry out work
on warming and wall facades ceilings, installation without scaffolding or other
mounting devices (cradles).

A possible embodiment is
the use of polystyrene blocks density of 250 kg / m 3 and a thickness of
300 mm.

NORMAL 4H-6

NOTES TO 4H-6 (4H-15)

Normal 4H-6 is
a basic decision of the outer wall (vertical section through a window
aperture) of polystyrene blocks coated on the front side of a brick
with jointing seam (without plaster front surface) and the plaster from
the inside (for 4H-15 exterior side plastered).

Normal 4H-6 technical solution
is close to the normal 4H-1, however, has a number of fundamental differences, the main of
which the use in masonry units with a density of 250 kg / m 3 (as 4H-1,
density 350 kg / m 3 ) and the width of the masonry 300 mm (height 375 mm). From
this follows a number of significant consequences:

1. Masonry must be
designed for wind loads in operation (project) and position during
erection of masonry that without special measures restricts its
use to a certain height above which requires complex events
ensure the laying operation is its bending plane (timbered, temporary
fixing et al.).

2. Window-sill and nadokonnaya
of the masonry are reduced or increased size, which can have
an impact on architectural solutions, and influence the functional characteristics of
the premises.

3. Jumpers in nadokonnoy
part of different widths, creating the effect of proximity "woodwork" to the
inner edge of the outer wall, which could adversely affect its
thermal performance.

4. When used as a
building normals 4H-4H-1 and 6 can cause problems "recognition"
blocks, despite the differences in their labeling.

In all other considerations and
explanations of the 4H-1 also apply to the 4H-6.

NORMAL 4H-7.

PLANS piers LINED
BRICK

NORMAL
4H-8

NORMAL
4 H 9

NORMAL
4H-10

NORMAL
4H-11

NOTES TO 4H-8, 9-4H,
4H-10 4 H 11

Normal 4 H 8 represents
a fundamental solution of the outer wall (vertical section through a window
aperture) of the polystyrene block, with the plastered and the inner facade
side of the building.

In podokonnoj parts
stacked three rows of units with ligation sutures, which corresponds to the nominal
height of the window opening 1500 mm. The possibility of inserting in the window sill of the wall
four rows of blocks that corresponds to the nominal height of the window opening 1200
mm.

In nadokonnoy part window
opening stacked two uneven webs or one high
"lying" with transoms of shredded polystyrene as a function of the height of
the floor and the geometric dimensions of the facade pins, exterior portion of which
is insulated effective insulation (Styrofoam) 100 mm thick and
protected by bricks "on edge" or shredded polystyrene concrete thickness of
60 mm. Polystyrene blocks bearing the soffit carried out not
completely, platform width of 215 mm and 160 mm cantilevered overhang.

If necessary, as a
metal can used jumper.

NORMAL 4H-12

NORMAL
4H-12. Section 1-1

NOTES TO 4H-12

Normal 4H-12 is
a principal decision outer wall (vertical section through a window
aperture) of the polystyrene block, with the plastered and the inner facade
side of the building.

In podokonnoj parts
stacked three rows of units with ligation sutures, which corresponds to the nominal
height of the window opening 1500 mm. The possibility of inserting in the window sill of the wall four
rows of blocks that corresponds to the nominal height of the window opening 1200 mm.

In nadokonnoy part window
opening uneven stacked two webs providing education
quarter concealing frame window unit and allow the device open
cladding pins, sensing the vertical load of the front wall
overlap and the balcony slab.

Face crossbar facade
insulated effective insulation thickness of 100 mm. Thus in insulation
within the height of the floor slab (balcony slab) is laid in the process of
concreting, and a heater disposed below the slab,
is set after execution of monolithic reinforced concrete works.

Communication with the balcony slab
facade bolt dowels carried, spaced at a distance of
1200 mm from each other. Furthermore, perhaps bearing the balcony slab on
"cheeks" balconies (loggia) connected by splines with the transverse bearing
walls.

Between balcony slab and
a jumper (protection effective insulation) located brickwork or
sawn pieces of polystyrene blocks.

On normal 4H-12 does not provide
a fundamental solution of the balcony railings, as such solutions can be
a great variety, and each of the solutions requires a certain system of embedded
parts in reinforced concrete.

One possible solution to
the balcony fencing solution is presented in near-normal 4H-3
(brick enclosure) with the formulation of the balcony fencing directly on
the plate and the front surface of plastering fence.

NORMAL
4H-13

NORMAL
4H-14

NORMAL
4H-15

NORMAL
4H-16

NORMAL
4H-17

NOTES TO-16 normals 4H,
4H-17

Normals 4H-16 4 H 17 provide
a fundamental solution strengthening masonry of polystyrene blocks to
ensure its operation to horizontal loads (wind pressure), which may
be necessary at high elevations, high altitude floors and the application
blocks with a bulk density of 300 kg / m 3 (295 mm thick masonry without
plastering and lining).

In normals shown strengthening
the walls. These solutions can be used for the piers.

Amplification is performed
by vertical steel or fiberglass profiles spaced in
quadrants SBPr blocks and dockable in various ways in adjacent
slabs. Profiles (in the case of strengthening of walls) are insulated from inside the building
polystyrene and shredded polystyrene concrete.

With increasing wall runs in
a horizontal plane between the amplification elements being wall supports.

Metallic elements
amplification can be carried out from different profiles selected in the project
, depending on the forces acting on them. And the profiles are considered to be
operating without the walls, and are calculated according to the terms of strength and
stiffness. It is recommended that the deflection elements of the gain does not exceed 1/400
of the span.

Profiles of fiberglass
are performed on special order and are placed in the project only after
confirmation by the manufacturer the possibility of their production (NPO
"Composite").

Due to the fact that the reinforcement
of masonry joints can be fixed to the fiberglass profiles by passing it into the
holes in the profiles, it is recommended to fix the blocks sawn grooves.
However, in this case it is necessary to bear in mind the complexity of the clutch device between the
two assembled and fixed profiles.

NORMAL
4H-18

NOTES TO Norman 4H-18

Normal 4H-18 illustrates
one of the possible options for the building corner. In terms are shown
reinforced concrete load-bearing structures (frame, floor, front crossbars, console)
with embedded items Polystyrene blocks, front brickwork,
insulation of expanded polystyrene and metal parts for mounting brick
masonry. The combination of different structural elements is conditional.
Normal explains constructive solutions and can be used to assign
the size of the monolithic concrete constructions and design of embedded and
mounting of parts and components of their fastenings.

Valves in the seams blocks and
masonry, and releases the inner reinforcement and the plaster layer
are not shown.

The space between the elements of
frames (between the bolt and struts) defining a niche in the premises can be filled with
polystyrene blocks (cutting blocks) or other single-piece material.

Blocks ligation in the corner
of the building is not necessary. See Section 1-1 normal 4H-1, see section 2-2
normal 4H-5.

NORMAL
4H-19. Perhaps a combination of polystyrene concrete blocks and an effective BRICK
MASONRY

Remarks:

1. Normal 4H-19 may be
used for areas of walls, where necessary with the facade securing attachment
of equipment and devices.

NORMAL
4H-20. PRINCIPLE OF REINFORCEMENT SLABS

NOTES TO 4H-20

Normal 4H-20 gives
a schematic reinforcement average cell overlap span circuit 6.0 - 7.2
m, based on the walls and crossbars (front bolt). Contour bearing and
presence of a balcony (loge) leads to the following solutions. All valves in the form
of individual rods (bulk) united viscous at the intersections with
the working or mounting fixture welding fixture is not provided. Lower
(flight path) fittings two directions with adjusting to the supports of at least 3 bars
1 rm (Step 300 mm). Additional reinforcement lower two-thirds of the span length
is placed in the middle of the span with Extension (offset) of the rods
relative to each other in two directions. Valves placed on
the plastic retainers mounted to the deck formwork with distances,
providing an exception sagging reinforcement during concrete placement.

The upper, nadopornaya fittings
fit around the cell perimeter Extension (offset) on the rods
relative to each other.

Fixation top reinforcement
is carried out, and the mounting rods may limb end portions of
the valve.

The upper reinforcement, reinforcing
loggia passes in overlap dowels and, if necessary, for example to
increase the size of the connectors temperature, concentrated in bundles. In this
possible embodiment of the reinforcement slabs loggia is lower,
longitudinal reinforcement, reaching to "cheeks" loge.

Class and cross-area
sectional valves are appointed on the basis of effort, defined by static
calculation of overlap in general. Steps reinforcement should be linked with the armature
adjacent structures. Outer armature slabs located above the upper
fitting bolt frames.

NORMAL
4H-21. PRINCIPLE OF REINFORCEMENT FRAMES

NOTES TO 4H-21

Normal 4H-21 gives a schematic
diagram of reinforcement frames having vertical pylons and mezhpilonnye crossbars.

Pylons are reinforced along the long
edges of the pylon vertical and horizontal reinforcement. In this step
the vertical reinforcement is not more than 200 mm, the horizontal no more than 300 mm.

Armature two faces
connected to the mounting fixture. The intersection of the two reinforcement directions
are fixed binding wire.

At the narrow faces pylons
set additional (fiber) reinforcement class AIII,
diameter not less than 20 mm by floor or through the bathroom floor mated welding with
the underlying fibric armature. The variant Crossover compound
fibric reinforcement. In the internal faces of the pylons fiber reinforcement twin,
located on the pylon axis in order to allow passage of reinforcement
beams, located at the sides of the pylon. At the outer edges of the pylons fiber
reinforcement is located at its long edges.

Assuming an "cheeks"
lodzhiy (the height of floor or part of a floor height) cuts from pylons
termorazemami, additional set (calculated) in the reinforcement
of connecting dowels are arranged on the strut axis to enable the passage
between fibric armature. The "cheeks" loggias similarly reinforced
strut frame.

Armature pylons rod
(loose). Frames crossbars are reinforced on their upper faces, a separate, snap into
the passage and the valve frame (space frame). The variant
replacement scaffolds individual reinforcing bars.

Class and the cross-
section of frame fittings are appointed on the basis of effort, defined by static
calculation of all the frames of the support system, including the kernel hardness if present.

Location reinforcement
should be linked to the reinforcement of adjacent structures. The upper fitting
bolt located under the upper ceiling fixtures.

NORMAL
4H-22. PRINCIPLE OF REINFORCEMENT FACADE Rigel

NOTES TO 4H-22

Normal 4H-22 gives
a schematic diagram of reinforcing cladding multispan pins, resting
on pylons frames.

Crossbars are reinforced at their
edges upper separate terminators in the span and armature cages
(space frame). The variant replacement scaffolds individual
reinforcing bars. Perhaps inclusion of the upper reinforcement frame when
performing connections of adjacent top reinforcement scaffolds bath welding.

Class and cross
-sectional reinforcement front crossbars are appointed on the basis of effort, defined
by static calculation.

Steps fittings and its
location linked to the reinforcement of adjacent structures.

In the presence of balconies (loggia)
upper armature slab is positioned above the upper cladding armature
bolt.

UNIT
1

Remarks:

1. Stripe -
250 '10 in order to improve the
thermal qualities of the walls can be stacked with gaps of 2 - 5 mm from
the concrete surface.

2. The strip
can be arranged with a gap above the brick filling with elastic lining.

3. All
metal parts and their attachments shall be appointed on the basis of calculations.

UNIT
2

Remarks:

1. All metal parts and
their attachments shall be appointed on the basis of calculations.

UNIT
3

Remarks:

1. All metal parts and
their attachments shall be appointed on the basis of calculations.

UNIT
4

Remarks:

1. All metal parts and
their attachments shall be appointed on the basis of calculations.

UNIT
5

Remarks:

1. All metal parts and
their attachments shall be appointed on the basis of calculations.

UNIT
6

Remarks:

1. All metal parts and
their attachments shall be appointed on the basis of calculations.

NODE 7, 8.

INSTALLATION AND FIXING
WOOD PRODUCTS

Remarks:

1. The pins driven into
zasverlennye in a frame and blocks the opening.

NODE 9, 10.

INSTALLATION WOOD PRODUCTS

UNIT 11

Remarks:

1. Metal mesh
cells approximately 10 'by 10 - 20' for 20 mm and 30 Ø1 '30 - 50' for 50 Ø3.

UNIT 12.

Mountings EQUIPMENT
AND DEVICES. INCISION

UNIT 13.
DESIGN ROOF

ANNEX I
EXTRACT FROM THE TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOCKS OF SOLID WALL polystyreneconcrete
TU 5741-159-00284807-96 *

(With change № 1)

Specifications
apply to blocks of polystyrene wall solid (hereinafter -
blocks), manufactured at the Central Experimental production base
VNIIzhelezobetona and intended for masonry exterior walls of buildings with normal
humidity conditions of premises, ensuring environmental safety of
used blocks and wall constructions are in housing construction for TI
011.0-3-00284807-95.

Prerequisites for
quality packs for their environmental and fire safety,
are set out in claims.
2.3.8, 2.7.3, 3.6, 3.9, 4.8, 6.3 of these technical
conditions.

Blocks denoted marks in
accordance with GOST
23009-78.

Brand unit consists of two
alphanumeric groups, separated by a hyphen.

In the first group indicate
the abbreviated name, type of unit, its type. The second group - the class of concrete
on the compressive strength of the brand of medium density and type of concrete.

EXAMPLE symbol
ordinary type I, class B2 compressive strength, grade of medium density
500

when ordering:

RRF I-B2 500 PB TU
5741-159-00284807-96.

1. Types, basic parameters and dimensions

1.1. The blocks are divided into
four types:

SBR - ordinary,

SBPr - pillar,

SBU - angular,

SBP - of bridge.

Table
1

unit type

Basic dimensions mm

Volume concrete m 3

unit Weight, kg

250

300

350

400

500

500c finish

SBR1

597

0,053

16.4

19.6

-

26.75

33.1

-

SBR2

1197

.1067

33.1

39.5

47.2

53.9

-

-

SBR3

597

0.0523

16.2

19.3

-

26.4

-

-

SBR4

1197

.1067

33.1

39.5

-

53.9

-

-

SBR5

517

0,046

14.2

17.0

-

-

29.0

32.2

SBPr1

597

0.0495

-

-

-

25.0

31.3

-

SBPr2

1197

.1063

-

-

-

53.7

-

-

SBPr3

517

0,043

-

-

-

-

27.1

30.2

SBU1

517

0,039

-

-

-

-

24.6

28.4

SBU2

597

0,044

-

-

-

-

27.6

30.7

SBP1

2397

0,107

-

-

-

54.1

67.6

-

SBP2

2397

0,107

-

-

-

-

-

74.4

NOTES: 1. Unit weight is given taking into account selling
moisture by volume in concrete 500 - 12% 400 - 10% 350 - 8% -7% 300 250
- 6%.

2.
Blocks SBR5, SBU1, SBU2, SBPr3 and SBP2 manufactured under a brick finish.

3.
It is assumed in agreement with the consumer, the release of other sizes of blocks
including without chamfer on a contour block.

4.
Application SBP1 blocks and SBP2 - align with developer.

MODIFICATION 1 №

2. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

2.1.
Blocks should be constructed in accordance with the requirements of this specification
terms of technological and TI 011.0-3-00284807-95 regulations, approved by
the manufacturer, and working drawings.

2.2. Steel molds for the
manufacturing units must meet the requirements of GOST
25781-83.

2.3. To the requirements of
polystyrene concrete.

2.3.1.
The materials used for the preparation of polystyrene blocks, must
meet the requirements of existing regulations:

cement - GOST 10178-85;

Filler polystyrene -
TU 5712-161-00284807-96;

water - GOST 23732-79;

admixture for concrete - GOST 24211-90.

2.3.2. Class (trademark)
polystyrene compressive strength depending on the purpose units
receive: V0.35 (M5), V0.5 (M7.5), V0.75 (M10), B1 (M15), Q1.5 (M20) and V2,0 (M25) - rev.
№1.

The value of the normalized temper
strength should be equal to 90% of class (grade) of polystyrene
compressive strength.

2.3.3. Brand polystyrene
average density take 300, 350, 400, 500. The allowed in agreement
with the customer manufacturing blocks of polystyrene grades at an average density
of 250 and 550. (edited. № 1). The actual average density polystyrene not
should exceed the nominal value by more than 10%.

2.3.4. Tensile Strength
Tensile Flexural should be at least, MPa 0.25 for class V0.35 (M5),
0.35 - to V0.5 (M7.5); 0.5 - to V0.75 (M10), 0.6 - for B1 (M15); 0.65 - for
B1.5 (M20); 0.7 - B2 (M25). (edited. № 1).

2.3.5. Sale humidity
polystyrene percentage by volume shall not exceed:

12 - Concrete 500; 8 - Concrete 350; 6 - for the concrete 250

10 - Concrete 400; 7 - Concrete 300;

2.3.6. Mark polystyrene
frost resistance should be not less than P25.

2.3.7. The coefficient
of thermal conductivity in the dry state should be no more W / (m ° C.): 0.08 - for
polystyrene grade 250, 0.09 - to 300 0.1 - 350 for 0.11 - to 400; 0.12
- to 450; 0.13 - to 500; 0.15 - to 550 (edited № 1.).

2.3.8.
Safety requirements and environmental protection.

2.3.8.1. Requirements
of safety and environmental protection to the materials used for
the preparation of polystyrene, according to current standards and technical
conditions for these materials in accordance with para. 2.3.1 of these technical
conditions.

2.3.8.2. Requirements for
the manufacture of security and the application of polystyrene blocks - under these
specifications and technological instructions TI.0-3-00284807-95,
providing a set of measures to ensure environmental
safety of polystyrene products and designs are in
housing construction.

Annex to the notification of
the change to the TU 1 № 5741-159-00084807-96 sheet 5.

2.3.8.3. Blocks
polystyrene produced in accordance with the claims. 2.1 and
2.3.1
of these technical specifications, - environmentally friendly. Isolation of harmful
impurities does not exceed the MAC approved by the State Committee of the RF.

p. 2.3.8.4. Excluded
(№ Amendment 1).

2.4. The requirements to the accuracy of
the geometrical parameters of blocks.

2.4.1. The requirements to the accuracy of
the geometrical parameters of the blocks are provided with precision manufacturing
metal molds (board equipment) or calibration.

2.4.2. The values
of real geometrical deviations from the nominal parameter blocks,
shown in detailed drawings should not exceed the limits specified in Table 2.

Table 2                                                                                               
in mm

View geometrical parameter deviations

geometrical parameter

Maximum deviation

The deviation from the linear dimension

Length

± 2,0

Height

± 1,5 (edited. №1)

Width (thickness)

± 3,0

Deviations from straightness

The straightness of the profile of the grooved surfaces:

 

the area length of 1000

1.0

the entire length of the block

2.0

uncalibrated surfaces intended for gluing:

(Amend. №1)

the area length of 1000

2.0

the entire length of the block:

 

1500

3.0

over 1500

4.0

designed for finishing:

 

the area length of 1000

5.0

the entire length of the block:

 

1500

7.0

over 1500

8.0

The deviation from squareness

Perpendicular faces of adjacent planes in the area of ​​300

(Edited. №1) 1,0

2.5. Quality requirements
surface and appearance of the blocks. Appendix № 1 to Notice the change TU
5741-159-00284807-96.

2.5.1. Dimensions and shells
include grooves at the block surfaces must not exceed specified in Table 3.

Table 3
millimeters

Sinks

local recess

diameter

depth

the largest size on the surface

depth

thirty

7

40

five

2.5.2. The depth of damage
of edges should not exceed 5 mm (edited. №1), their length is 1 m is not more rib 50
mm.

2.5.3. The depth of damage
blocks angles must not be more than 15 mm. (edited. № 1).

2.5.4. The concrete blocks are not
to be cracked, with the exception of local superficial shrinkage and other
technological cracks no greater than 0.1 mm wide.

2.5.5. Blocks may
be produced without a decorative finishing layer and a finishing layer,
simulating the brickwork, marble or granite facing.

2.5.6. The thickness of the protective finish
layer should be 10 ± 1 mm.

2.5.7. Durability finishing
layer should be not less than 5.0 and not more than 10.0 MPa; Mark on frost resistance -
not less than D 35.

2.5.8. On the surface of the blocks
fatty stains are not allowed.

2.6. Requirements to the weight
blocks.

2.6.1. The actual mass of
blocks at their release to the consumer should not exceed a nominal weight
specified in Table
1, more than 10%.

2.7. Marking.

2.7.1. Marking blocks
should be performed according to GOST
13015.2-81.

2.7.2. Marking should
be applied to the side surface with indelible ink.

2.7.3.
At blocks certified sign applied conformity GOST 50460-92.

2.8. Completeness.

2.8.1. In cases
stipulated in the working drawings and / or ordering units are supplied complete.

Changing № 1

2.9. Requirements for
fire-technical characteristics of products.

2.9.1. In accordance with SNP 21-01-97
fire risk polystyrene blocks of continuous wall is defined
by the following fire-technical characteristics: combustibility,
flammability, smoke-forming capability.

2.9.2. Fire-technical
characteristics of the polystyrene blocks TU continuous wall
5741-159-00284807-96 (brand density 400, 500, 550) must meet
the following:

- a group of
flammability according to GOST 30244 G1

- a group of
flammability according to GOST 30402 B1

- a group of
smoke-forming ability of D1

GOST
12.1.044 (p. 2.14.2 and p. 4.18)

2.9.3. Fire-technical
characteristics must comply with the protocol of certified test number
32 / 2-96 on July 31, 1996

2.9.4. Fire-technical
characteristics define: every three years, and / or products in the formulation of
production and / or changes in the products or the technology
of production.

2.9.5. When certification
of product testing frequency is determined by the requirements of the system
GOST R certification in the construction and / or certification systems in the field of
fire safety.

3. ACCEPTANCE OF TERMS

3.1. Acceptance blocks should
produce batches in accordance with the GOST
13015.1-81 and this specification.

The batch composition include
blocks made of materials of the same kind and quality of audio technology
for one day.

3.2. Acceptance blocks
indicators precision geometry and quality of concrete surfaces
should be made on the results of the single-stage selective control. For
this purpose from groups of blocks of the same type, and (or) species selected blocks 5%, but not
less than five pieces.

3.3. Acceptance of blocks
of polystyrene produce compressive strength for each production lot of
the test results is not less cubes 10 '10' 10 cm.

3.4. Acceptance of blocks
medium density polystyrene and selling products to produce a moisture content
of each batch of blocks by manufacture and tests the control samples 10 '10' 10 cm.

3.5. Acceptance blocks
strength polystyrene tensile flexural indicators
frost and thermal conductivity should be made based on the results of periodic
tests are carried out at the beginning of mass manufacturing, for each
change in technology or materials used.

3.6.
The acceptance of the blocks in terms of flammability and environmental safety should
produce the results of tests that are carried out at the beginning of mass
manufacture and at each change of brands use special lightweight
aggregate.

3.7. Prior to acceptance
necessary to discard blocks with a clear deviation from the requirements of the
specifications, identified by visual inspection of all the blocks.

3.8. Sample blocks in which
the value of at least one of the geometric parameters of the actual differs
from the nominal by an amount exceeding the limit values of deviations
established this specification (Table 2), to be rejected.
Rejection number of sample blocks in accordance with GOST
13015.1-81 - no more than one. In this case if the deviation of the geometric
dimensions of the rejected unit differ from those indicated in Table 2 by more than
half, the party is not accepted. In this case a solid
block control.

3.9.
Each batch of units should be accompanied by quality certificate according to GOST 13015.3-81 and certificate of conformity for certified units. A document
as may comprise instructions for use.

4. METHODS OF CONTROL

4.1. Size deviation from
straightness and perpendicularity cracking width dimensions shells
and sagging check methods established GOST
26433.0-85 and GOST
26433.1-89.

4.2. Control of the depth
of damage of edges and corners of the procedure performed according to GOST
21520-89.

4.3. Concrete strength
compressive and tensile bending is determined in accordance with GOST
10180-90.

4.4. Determination of the average
density polystyrene and selling products produced in accordance with GOST humidity 12730.1-78
and GOST
12730.2-78 on samples for determining concrete strength by
n. 4. The drying of concrete is carried out at a temperature not higher than 80 ° C.

4.5. Frost resistance of
polystyrene measured according to GOST
10060.0-95 and GOST 10060.1-95.

For polystyrene with the mark
to be determined in accordance with GOST 25485-89 average density of less than 350 and frost resistance.

4.6. The thermal conductivity of
polystyrene measured according to GOST 7076-80.

4.7. Group combustibility
of polystyrene blocks is determined in accordance with GOST 30244-94,
flammability group - according to GOST
30402-96 (edited № 1.), Smoke-forming capacity - GOST
12.1.044-89.

4.8.
Environmental safety of polystyrene determined by the method of
the State Committee of the Russian Federation № 03-92, approved. 13.03.92 Mr.

5. TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE

5.1. Transporting and
storing blocks should be in accordance with the GOST
13015.4-84 and this specification.

5.2. Storage units should
be carried out in stacks. The number of rows in a stack no more than six. The stacks should
be protected from atmospheric precipitation.

5.3. It is forbidden to perform
bulk loading and unloading of dropping blocks.

5.4. Loading, unloading and
blocks the transportation can be carried out individually and entirely
stacks. This should be made to prevent mechanical
damage to the goods or their downfall. It is recommended during transportation
to use inventory containers.

5.5. In the carriage blocks
to be laid in regular rows in the direction of the longitudinal axis of movement
of vehicles.

5.6. The blocks should be stored in the
warehouse sorted by make and put in storage so that were
visible markings.

6. INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE

6.1. When installing external
wall blocks are placed manually without crane equipment with bonding of
technological regulations, approved by the manufacturer.

6.2. For gluing units
apply glue mineral composition according to TU and TU 2513-128-00284807-94
2513-165-00284867-96.

6.3.
Ensuring environmental safety of polystyrene blocks in the
housing construction - for TI 011.0-3-002848.

6.4. Allowed treatment -
blocks cutting at the construction site.

ANNEX II

BACKGROUND
INFORMATION
VNIIzhelezobetona of polystyrene concrete products and structures

1. The calculated resistance
blocks and masonry

1.1. The calculated resistance
units

Table 1

kind of
resistance

Regulatory
resistance R polystyrene BN , R vtn , R vtf n ,
and calculated resistance limit states for the second group R vser ,
R vtser and R vtfser during concrete class strength at
compression, MPa

 

In 0.5

In 0.75

In 1.0

1.5

Axial Compression (prism
strength) R BN and R vser

0.5

0.75

1.0

1.5

Stretching axial R vtn
and R vtser

0.15

0.21

0.26

0.3

Elongation Flexural R vtf n
and R vtfser

0.27

0.38

0.47

0.55

table 2

kind of
resistance

The calculated
resistance polystyrene limit states for the first group R b,
Rvt, Rvtf during concrete class of compressive strength, MPa

 

In 0.5

In 0.75

In 1.0

1.5

Axial Compression (prism
strength) R b

0.35

0.55

0.75

1.05

Axial tensile Rvt

0.09

0.12

0.15

0.18

Tensile bending Rvtf

0.16

0.22

0.28

0.32

1.2. The calculated resistance
of masonry.

TABLE 3

Block Mark (grade polystyrene strength)

The calculated resistance R, MPa compressive
masonry blocks of polystyrene in adhesive compositions

7.5 (0.5 in)

0.24

10 (0.75)

0.39

15 (1.0)

0.52

20 (1.5)

0.65

TABLE 4

View
the state of stress

designation

The calculated
resistance R, MPa masonry blocks of polystyrene in adhesive
compositions axial stretching, stretching during bending and shear in the calculation of
clutch sections extending along the horizontal and vertical seams at the stamp
unit (class polystyrene strength)

 

 

7.5

(In
0.5)

ten

(V
0.75)

15

(In
1.0)

20

(B
1.5)

A. The axial tensile

R t

 

 

 

 

1. neperevyazannomu
-section

 

0.08

0.10

0.13

0.16

2. bandaged-section

 

0,085

0.11

0.14

0.17

B. Elongation in bending

R t in

 

 

 

 

3. neperevyazannomu
-section

 

0.14

0.19

0.24

0.28

4. bandaged-section

 

0.15

0.21

0.26

0.30

B. Shear

the R sq

 

 

 

 

5. neperevyazannomu
-section

 

0.16

0.20

0.26

0.32

Table 5

View
the state of stress

designation

The calculated
resistance R, MPa masonry blocks of polystyrene in adhesive
compositions axial stretching, stretching during bending and shear when calculating
masonry sections of bandaged section passing on polystyrene
blocks with stamp block (grade polystyrene strength)

 

 

7.5

(In
0.5)

ten

(V
0.75)

15

(V1,0)

20

(V1,5)

1. The axial tensile

R t

0,085

0,115

0.145

0,175

2. Stretching flexural

R TV

0,155

0.215

0.27

0.31

3. Slice

the R sq

0.17

0.23

0.29

0.35

Read more:   FUSE in the water heater

The design resistance
of masonry crushing R c is determined according to n. 4.14 SNP 11-22-81.

When this ratio ζ 1
is taken from Table. 21, pos. 3.

2. The initial modulus of elasticity
of blocks and masonry and elastic characteristics of masonry.

2.1. blocks Modulus

TABLE 6

Mark
polystyrene average density

Some
polystyrene compressive modulus and tensile E v'10 ,
MPa, the class (grade) of concrete compressive strength

In 0.5
(7.5)

The 0.75
(10)

The 1,0
(15)

1.5
(20)

D 250

0.45

 

 

 

D 300

0.50

0.6

 

 

D 350

0.65

0.7

1.1

 

D 400

 

0.8

1.2

1.3

D 450

 

 

1.3

1.4

D 500

 

 

 

1.45

2.2. The elastic modulus of the masonry,
the elastic characteristics of the masonry.

The modulus of elasticity is determined
according to the formula (1), p. 3.20 SNP 11-22-81. The resilient characteristic is: for laying
of polystyrene blocks and 10 mark 7,5 - α = 750; marks 15 and 20 -
α = 1000.

The coefficient K in the formula (3)
taken as equal to 2.25.

3. The creep factor

In determining the deformations of
the formula (9) SNP 11-22-81 creep is assumed to be V = 3,5.

4. The coefficient of linear
expansion

The coefficient of linear
expansion masonry d t is equal to 0.000008 deg -1 .

5. The coefficient of friction clutches
for masonry and concrete

The coefficient of friction clutches for
masonry or concrete is: the dry surface u = 0,7,
the wet surface condition u = 0,6.

6. Regulatory and the calculated
average density of masonry blocks, and

TABLE 7

The class of compressive strength

Mark polystyrene average density

In 0.5

D 250, D 300, D 350

In 0.75

D 300, D 350, D 400

In 1.0

D 350, D 400, D 450

1.5

D 400, D 450, D 500

The actual average density
polystyrene should not exceed the nominal value by more than 10%.

Glue Density - 1370 kg / m 3 .

Laying density is the sum of
the density of polystyrene and 30 kg / m 3 adhesive.

Safety factor for
load γ f = 1.2

7. Make blocks
hardiness

Table 8

The class
of compressive strength

Mark
on frost resistance

In 0.5

F 35 - F 50

In 0.75

F 35 - F 50

In 1.0

F 35 - F 50

1.5

F 35 - F 50

8. The release units humidity

Sale humidity
polystyrene percentage by volume shall not exceed:

12 - D for concrete - 500;

10 - D for concrete - 400;

8 - for the D blocks - 350;

7 - for the D blocks - 300;

6 - for blocks D - 250.

9. The value of the normalized
handling strength and shrinkage

The value of the normalized
handling strength is 90% by weight (brand) on polystyrene
compressive strength.

The class of concrete strength at
compression and brand of medium density specified in the block mark and is accepted
according to the assignment blocks.

Warp shrinkage
polystyrene blocks does not exceed 0.6 mm / m. Thus 90% of the total shrinkage
occurs to 7 days of hardening at a positive temperature after heat
treatment (steaming or elektroprogrev). Full shrinkage occurs in 60
- 90 days.

10. The coefficient
of thermal conductivity in the dry state and the selling

Table 9

Brand
block average density

The coefficient of
thermal conductivity in dry condition λW / (m ° C)

The calculated
coefficients of thermal conductivity λ in the operation conditions, W / (m ° C)

BUT

B

150

0,055

0,057

0,060

200

0,065

0,070

0,080

250

0,075

0,085

0,095

300

0,085

0,090

0,110

350

0,095

0,110

0,125

400

0,105

0.120

0,135

450

0,115

0,130

0.145

500

0,125

0,140

0,160

Thermal conductivity coefficient
blocks in the holiday state may be taken for the operating conditions
B.

In determining the thermal
resistance of the adhesive joints masonry effect taken into account by multiplying the
thermal resistance R of blocks k by the coefficient r cl = 0.98.

11. The water absorption and water vapor transmission rate
of blocks and masonry

Table 10

Brand
block average density

Calculated
mass ratio of the moisture in the material W,%, under operating conditions

Estimate
vapor permeability coefficient mg / (m . Hr . Pa)

BUT

B

150

four

9

0,125

200

four

9

0.11

250

four

9

0.10

300

four

9

0,095

350

four

9

0,085

400

four

9

0.08

450

four

9

0,075

500

four

9

0.07

12. Coefficient conditions
of work for laying partitions ranging from 600 mm length

Table. 3 the calculated resistance
compression masonry determined reduction factor λ c
=
0.8 for both macroporous and cellular concrete.

Decrease in Table. 3
values for partitions sectional area greater than 0.3 m 2 by
multiplying by the coefficient λ with no follows.

13. The coefficient of variation
of blocks in strength and density

According release
industrial batches blocks variations in strength ratio is 16 - 20
%.

The relationship between classes and
marks (Table.
3) obtained with normative coefficient of variation of 18%.

The actual average density
polystyrene should not exceed the nominal values (Table 7.)
More than 10%. The coefficient of variation of density of 5 - 10%.

14. Adhesion blocks to adhesives,
solutions, plasters

14.1. block adhesion to adhesives.

Initial adhesive strength
(tackiness confection) of adhesive CMC with polystyrene concrete - 0.004 ... 0.008 MPa,
after 30 ... 60 min after gluing units - 0.04 ... 0.06 MPa after 4 ... 6 hours
after bonding 0.24 ... 0.3 MPa and after 24 hours of equal strength bonding
compound with DPM.

Rupture occurs
polystyrene ... D D 250 500.

14.2. Adhesion blocks to
plaster. The frost resistance test plaster samples showed that
they withstood 35 cycles of alternating freezing and thawing without disturbing the
finish and its adhesion to polystyrene concrete.

Studies of adhesion
of cement-lime-sand plaster to the surface of polystyrene blocks
found that subject to pre-priming the surface
, polymer composition after 14 days of natural hardening
provides the necessary adhesion to the plaster polystyrene (detachment
occurs on the block body).

The use of a metal
mesh, to strengthen on the nails, almost no effect on the results, but
it is necessary in order to avoid shedding plaster when unexposed.

15. Data for adhesives
(solutions), including binding strength characteristics and conditions of
use, including temperature and time

CMC glue; the age of 28 days.

15.1. R SJ = 17 ... 20 MPa, R out = 3 ... 4 MPa; R t = 2.8 ... 3.1 MPa, a modulus
of elasticity of 0.7 ... 0.9 MPa . 10 -4 ,
a glutinous seam shrinkage DPM - not more than 0.5 mm / m. Full shrinkage occurs after 10
- 14 days of hardening at a positive temperature.

15.2. Thermal conductivity of adhesive
λ, W / (m ° C) at a humidity of 11 ... 13% - 0.5 ... 0.53; dry -
0.33 ... 0.38.

15.3. Frost
adhesive bead by volume freezing DPM 2 method GOST
10060.2-95 and unilaterally freezing GOST
7025-91 - not less than 75 cycles.

15.4. Weathering
bondline DPM at alternating saturation bonded samples in water and
subsequent drying at 60 ° C for 8 hours - no less than 100 cycles. Coefficient
atomosferostoykosti - 1 ... 1.3.

15.5. Temperature curing
adhesive CMC - than + 3 ° C, the adhesive KMC-X is not below -20 ° C.

Kinetics hardening adhesive KMC-X
at -20 ° C (R t bondline PSB):

1 day. - 0.17 MPa; 2 days. -
0.2 MPa; 14 days. - 0.26 MPa (gap DPM); 180 days. - 0.27 MPa (gap
DPM).

16. Poisson's ratio
of polystyrene

= Poisson's ratio V
0.25.

17. Fire prevention
requirements of the state fire service

Fire tests
Safety Fire Prevention held in the Interior Ministry. Wall panels 2,1 '2.1 m and 0.3 m thick polystyrene of a density of 300 - 350 kg / m 3
with the plastered surface of δ = 20 mm were tested to determine the
limit of flame propagation. Based on the studies we found that the walls
meet the III degree of fire resistance according to SNIP 2.01.02-85 *.

Polystyrene is related to
a group of slow-burning materials with low smoke-forming capability.

Based on the results of full-scale
fire tests fragments of buildings with extra insulation, expert
advice UGPC believed possible to use polystyrene blocks as
curtain walls of houses without limitation rise under the following conditions:
blocks plastered cement-sand mortar thickness of not less than 20 mm on
anchor metal grid, and slopes of window and door openings
of at least 50 mm (letter GUPS MVD on 07/23/98, the № 25/18 / 4131-
transferred MNIITEP of 30.12.98).

18. The data on the rate
of reinforcement corrosion, located in clutch

Polystyrene with a density of
250 - 500 kg / m 3 protects the valve against corrosion. After 6 months.
and storage under ambient atmospheric conditions and 180 cycles alternately
humidifying and drying on the rods of rebar corrosion symptoms are
observed.

19. Comments

19.1. The SNIP 11-22-81 in
an indicator of the strength of the brand is used. Minimum mark
polystyrene blocks having a density of 250 kg / m 3 and higher - 7.5 kg / cm 2 .
This stamp is allowed n for light concrete blocks. 2.1a snip 11-22-81,
data for calculating the walls using such blocks are shown in Table. 7 and
26. Table. 26 laying of stones marks 7 ... 15
assigned to groups 3 and 4. In accordance with these groups are set
distance between the transverse rigid building structure (Table. 27).

The requirement for the application to
an insulation concrete with tensile strength not less than 7 kg / cm 2
due to the design of multilayer walls (p. 6.306).
When a heater from such concrete connection between the structural layers are considered
severe. At a lower strength concrete insulation communication regarded as
flexible and economically feasible to use a more efficient insulation.

19.2. The same class
of compressive strength depending on the concrete structure can fit
several brands of medium density polystyrene (tab. 7). For example,
Polystyrene density D 350 may have a strength class B 0.75 for a
concrete composition and the strength of 1.0 to several other modified composition. The
project shall include both the required parameters: class brand strength and
density. When marking the blocks provided to indicate both.

REQUIREMENTS FOR WIND
LOAD

Strength
in compression and the minimum density for the bearing capacity of a pier
(external plaster on the grid) for the perception of wind load
(Moscow: District 1, type of terrain)

Stage operation, the height of
floors - 3 m, width of the window - 2.1 m.

Dimensions partition: b
(width), δ (wall thickness).

The cross section of the wall
- on masonry block.

The height of
the building

δ
= 30 cm

δ
= 40 cm

b = 60 cm

b = 90 cm

b = 120 cm

b = 60 cm

b = 90 cm

b = 120 cm

12 fl.

In 0.5

In 0.5

In 0.5

In 0.5

In 0.5

In 0.5

D
250

D 250

D 250

D
250

D
250

D
250

17 fl.

In 1.0

In 0.75

In 0.75

In 0.5

In 0.5

In 0.5

D 350

D 300

D 300

D 250

D 250

D 250

25 fl.

1.5

In 1.0

In 0.75

In 0.75

In 0.5

In 0.5

D 400

D 350

D 300

D 300

D 250

D 250

Notes: 1. The wind load is determined according to SNIP 2.01.07-85.

2. The bearing capacity of brickwork
of blocks defined by SNP 11-22-81.

3. Bold characters indicate
options for concrete density of 250 kg / m 2 .

APPENDIX III. SBP - 10 REINFORCEMENT

APPENDIX III. SBP - 10 VALVES. STRUCTURE K
-1

APPENDIX III.
SBP-10 SPECIFICATION FITTING

Brand
Number of pieces.

SKETCH

Pos.

section.

length

mm

to of

Pos.

WEIGHT, KG

Pos.

All
poses.

stamps

K-1
1 pc.

2380

 

one

Ø8AI

2380

2

0.94

1.88

6.07

2000

 

2

Ø8AI

2000

2

0.80

1.60

3

Ø6AI

3130

2

0.70

1.40

140

 

four

-40 '3

140

9

0.13

1.19

APPENDIX III. CALCULATION OF JUMPERS SBP 10

DESIGN
SCHEME I FARM

Jumper is calculated
assuming the work only of the reinforcing cage (polystyrene work on
bending is not considered)

M the G = the F A . R A . = 0.503 h . 2100
. 24.5 = 25880 kgcm = M l / 2;

The bearing capacity of the strut

N AC = F a . R a . cp = 0.283
. 2100 . 0.8 = 475 kg
≈ N AC

Net weight Jumper:

q dm = 0.295 . 0.18 . 350
= 18.6 kg / m;

The bearing capacity of bridges:

q n = q . 2 - q dm = 2 . 270 - 20 = 520 kg / m;

Weighing in at a number of units:

q b = 0.3 . 0.375 . 350
= 37 kg / m, the web (a) may bear laying height series or h = 4,2 (excluding the weight of
the plaster).

NOTE:

1. The bearing capacity of
bridges to be confirmed by the test results.

APPENDIX IV. Thermal calculation

SNIP II-3-79 * «Building
Heat Engineering" (ed. 1998), reduced thermal resistance Rstraight outer wall should be
not lower than the required heat transfer resistance Rtr .

For residential buildings under construction in
Moscow SNIP II-3-79 *
and MGSN 2.01-99 RTp is set not less than 3.15 m 2 ° C / W (II
stage).

In normals treated
seven different solutions outer wall thickness of 340 to 680 mm. In this case
the thickness of the heat insulating-structural material (polystyrene) in the walls
ranges from 300 to 375 mm. As an external finishing layer is considered
ceramic hollow brick or plaster.

Symbols of resistance
to heat transfer Rcond wall, ie, excluding the effect of thermally conductive
inclusions and joints with other designs discussed in
normals making walls are shown in Table. one

The highest value Rcond is the seventh version of the
design solution of the wall. For this embodiment, held thermotechnical
calculations wall fragment (see. The normal
4H-4) in the building shafts 2700 '3000 mm.

Table 1

option number

The normal number

The construction of the wall and the thickness of the layers, mm

Wall thickness,
mm

Coefficient of thermal conductivity of polystyrene
W / m ° C

Rcond
m 2 ° C / W

one

2

3

four

five

6

one

4H-15

plaster - 20

340

0,110

2.93

polystyrene - 300

 

0,125

2.60

plaster - 20

 

0,135

2.42

2

4H-8

plaster - 30

435

0,110

3.63

polystyrene - 375

 

0,125

3.22

plaster - 30

 

0,135

3.00

3

4H-6

brick - 125

445

0,110

3.12

polystyrene - 300

 

0,125

2.80

plaster - 20

 

0,135

2.62

four

4H-1, 2-4H

brick - 125

520

0,110

3.80

polystyrene - 375

 

0,125

3.40

plaster - 20

 

0,135

3.17

five

4H-13

plaster - 20

575

0,110

3.68

polystyrene - 375 monolith.

 

0,125

3.27

reinforced -180

 

0,135

3.04

6

4H-5

brick - 125

605

0,110

3.19

 

polystyrene - 300 monolith.

 

0,125

2.86

 

reinforced concrete - 180

 

0,135

2.68

7

4-4H, 4H-5

a brick 125

680

0,110

3.87

 

polystyrene - 375 monolith.

 

0,125

3.46

 

reinforced concrete 180

 

0,135

3.24

The estimated coefficients
of thermal conductivity of materials that form the walls and structures adjacent to it,
taken on SNIP II-3-79 *
, and are summarized in Table.
2.

Fragment partitioned into
characteristic calculation sections, fig. 1. For each of them on the computer calculated
the heat flow. Knowing the calculated heat flow and the differential temperature of air
is reduced resistance to heat transfer characteristic portion. definition results are summarized in Table. 3.

Reduced resistance
to heat transfer wall fragment this design
depends on the thermal conductivity of polystyrene:

- at λ = 0,125 W / m ° C     = 2.68 m 2 ° C / W;

- at λ = 0,110 W / m ° C     = 2.93 m 2 ° C / Wt.

Coefficient of Thermal Engineering
homogeneity « i » fragment wall in
the first case is equal to 0.77, and in the second - 0.76.

To increase the reduced
resistance to heat to the desired quantity (3.15 m 2 ° C / W)
is recommended:

- to make the inner
stucco layer thickness of not less than 20 mm from the cement-perlitic solution
density of 400 kg / m 3 in the dry state;

- increased from 50 to 100 mm in the
slab thickness insulating inserts (DPM "35" brand).

definition results  fragment from
the above directions and λ = 0,11 W / m ° C are given in Table. 3.

TABLE 3


claims

Identification of the substance

Density, kg / m 3

Coefficient of thermal conductivity
W / m ° C

one.

Reinforced concrete

2500

2.4

2.

The cement-sand mortar

1800

0.93

3.

Brickwork of ceramic hollow bricks γ = 1300
kg / m 3

1400

0.58

four.

polystyrene *

350

0,125

300

0.11

five.

Expanded polystyrene

35

0.05

6.

Polyurethane foam

100

0.06

7.

softwood

500

0.18

eight.

Cement-pearlitic solution

400

0.12

* - coefficients of
thermal conductivity of polystyrene adopted according VNIIzhelezobetona.

Figure 1. Schematic of a breakdown in the
settlement areas of the wall fragment

TABLE 4

Nos №

 Estimated land

The coefficient
of thermal conductivity of polystyrene, W / m ° C

The coefficient
of thermal conductivity of polystyrene, 0.110 W / m ° C

Dimensions
m

Square

f, m 2

0,125

0,110

The insert
100 mm

The insert
100 mm plus complementary. plaster

f /

f /

f /

f /

one.

0,30'0,62

.1860

3,025

0.0615

3,343

0.0556

3,343

0.0556

3,455

0.0538

2.

0,18'0,62

.1116

2,930

0.0381

3,251

.0343

3,251

0.343

3,380

0.0330

3.

0,17'0,62

.1054

3,214

0.0328

3,523

0.0299

3,523

0.0299

3,654

0.0288

four.

1,22'0,62

.7564

1,872

.4040

1,985

.3810

2,390

.3164

2,444

.3095

five.

0,18'0,62

.1116

1,031

.1082

1,052

.1061

1,052

.1061

1,096

.1018

6.

0,56'0,62

.3472

2,826

.1228

3,103

.1119

3,103

.1119

3,190

.1088

7.

0,09'0,62

.0558

3,162

0.0176

3,522

0.0158

3,522

0.0158

3,668

0.0152

eight.

2'0,65'1,48

1.9240

2,973

.6472

3,303

.5825

3,303

.5825

3,395

.5667

9.

0,3'0,90

.2700

3,380

0.0799

3,768

.0716

3,768

.0716

3,892

0.0694

ten.

0,18'0,90

.1620

3,307

.0490

3,679

.0440

3,679

.0440

3,818

0.0424

eleven.

0,17'0,90

.1530

3,410

.0449

3,805

0.0402

3,805

0.0402

3,945

.0388

12.

1,22'0,90

1.0980

2,785

.3942

3,050

.3600

3,215

.3415

3,306

.3321

13.

0,18'0,90

.1620

2,320

.0698

2,487

.0651

2,487

.0651

2,603

.0622

14.

0,56'0,90

.5040

3,337

.1510

3,711

.1358

3,711

.1358

3,814

.1321

15.

0,09'0,90

.0810

3.377

0.0240

3,766

0.0215

3,766

0.0215

3,918

0.0207

 

TOTAL:

6.0280

Total:

2.2452

Total:

2.0556

Total:

1.9723

Total:

1.9153

Reduced resistance
to heat fragment with increased in overlap to 100 mm thick
insulating liners was 3.06 m 2 ° C / W, and when performing
both recommendations - 3.15 m 2 ° C / W.

findings

Wall considered
design satisfies a given heat transfer resistance SNIP * 3-79-II of
«Thermal Engineering" (ed. 1998) under the following
conditions.

1) density polystyrene
350 kg / m 3 (dry), the operational humidity of the column
"A", further an inner stucco layer thickness of not less than 20
mm from the cement-perlitic solution of 400 kg / m 3 ; the thickness of the
insulating liner (DPM mark "35") in the overlap is increased
to 100 mm;

In connection with acceptance by the graph
"A" operational humidity (4%) is necessary to design calculation
vlagonakopleniya; depending on the results of calculation between the plaster and
a monolithic reinforced concrete layer, steam may be introduced.

2) polystyrene density
300 kg / m 3 (dry), the operational humidity (9%) of
the column "B", and the plaster layer further increased thickness of
insulating inserts in the ceiling.

APPENDIX
V.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR ASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGY SYSTEM curtain wall "UNICON"

1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.1. This Instruction
is developed in the development of SNIP 3.01.01-85 *
"Organization of building production" of M.1990 and SNIP 3.03.01-87 "Bearing and
enclosing structures", M. 1998

Instructions Instructions
apply to the production and acceptance of work performed at a laying of
non-bearing exterior walls of polystyrene blocks in the adhesive compositions.

Blocks must meet
specification requirements 5741-159-00284807-96 * "blocks of polystyrene wall
solid."

For bonding
polystyrene blocks used mineral glue composition
corresponding to technical specifications 2513-203-00284807-98 conditions.

1.2. Work on the construction
of polystyrene wall should be carried out according to the approved project
of works (PPR), which along with the general requirements of SNIP 3.01.01-85 *
must be provided: the sequence of installation and structural
measures to ensure the required installation strength, stability
of structures and parts of buildings the process of erection.

1.3. When transporting and
temporarily storing Polystyrene blocks should be as
a rule, at a position corresponding to the project, and must be prevented from
getting wet.

1.4. The blocks must be
secured for protection against overturning of the longitudinal and
transverse displacement, mutual impacts against each other or against the construction
vehicles.

1.5. Blocks for the storage
should be sorted by brand and stack based assembly sequence.

1.6. Forbidden movement
dragged blocks.

2. REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF WORKS ON
erection of non-load bearing external walls from Polystyrene blocks

2.1. Work on the construction
of polystyrene walls must be made in accordance with the project.

2.2. It is not allowed
the weakening of the walls of the holes, grooves, recesses, the mounting openings are not
provided for the project.

2.3. Masonry fill
bearing frame of the building should be carried out in accordance with the requirements
for the construction of load-bearing masonry structures.

2.4. The thickness of the horizontal and
vertical joints of the walls of polystyrene blocks is 2 - 3 mm,
while the reinforced seams - 3 - 4 mm.

2.5. Polystyrene
jumper installed in the design position similar masonry units -
manually and adhesive compositions. Thus it is necessary to check that the line
jumper labeled with indelible paint "up" is in the top
position.

2.6. When brickwork
walls made of brick masonry cement-sand mortar simultaneously
with polystyrene masonry blocks in accordance with the instructions SNP 3.03.01-87.

Collaboration
brick lining and laying of polystyrene blocks must have
flexible connection in the form of reinforcing mesh, the stacking in the seams according to the project.

2.7. If, according to
meteorological data, expected wind speed exceeds 8 m / s in the construction of walls of buildings
with storey height H <3 m of density block 250 kg / m 3 and
13 m / s for the same building from blocks density of 350 kg / m 3 , to the
occurrence of the respective wind pressure at the height of an erected wall masonry
to be outputted to the ceiling level and fixed at that level
(for example, using the sealing foam). Otherwise, marginal height
freely stoyaschty wall shall not exceed the values specified in Table. 1,
or for sensing wind pressure wall must be secured by installing temporary
fasteners. As the latter can be used inventory struts,
used when mounting panel walls. After 1 day, the adhesive composition
dials the desired strength and temporal fixing can be removed. When
masonry walls manufacturer works must be constantly informed about the expected
wind speeds.

Table 1

The thickness of the blocks, see

Volumetric weight (density) blocks, kg / m 3

Permissible wall height, cm with a high-speed
pressure of the wind, N / m 2 (wind speed, m / s) at a height of masonry erected

55 (8)

120 (13)

150 (15)

270 (21)

450 (27)

1000 (40)

295

250

300

120

90

60

thirty

-

375

350

660

300

240

120

90

thirty

Note: 1. The table is based on analogy with Table.
28 SNP 3.03.01-87
(blind wall, mortar or adhesive is not yet gained strength).

2. When the speed of the wind pressure, having
intermediate values permissible height freestanding wall is determined by interpolation.

2.8. Vertical faces and
laying angles of polystyrene blocks its horizontal rows must be
checked during the execution of masonry (every 0.6 m) with the elimination of detected
deviations within a tier.

2.9. Laying process consists
of the following basic operations: cleaning the surface of the blocks, the preparation of the adhesive
composition; stacking blocks on the adhesive layer, verification of horizontality and
verticality of the stacked series.

Work are encouraged to maintain
a link "four". Qualified bricklayer lays verstovye series
follows the bandaging of seams, for horizontal and vertical position of a laying; two
bricklayer-tray scrap blocks, purified by their surface, they spread the adhesive
composition helps to stack blocks in the design position; third helper
busy preparing the adhesive composition.

On one-bay being
masonry walls, on the other prepares working place set
the stage, harvested materials.

3. Requirements for the adhesive composition

For bonding
polystyrene blocks designed VNIIzhelezobetonom apply glue
mineral composition KMC (hardening temperature to + 5 ° C) and KMC-x
(hardening temperature from + 5 ° C to -20 ° C). After 4 - 6 hours after gluing
at 20 ± 5 ° C adhesion strength reaches 0.17 - 0.24 MPa after 1 day
break occurs on the bonded polystyrene samples.

Frost compound not
below F75. The adhesive compositions of CMC and CMC's nontoxic, nonflammable and environmentally
safe.

4. TECHNOLOGY masonry

4.1. Erection
polystyrene walls is a piece-polystyrene masonry
blocks on the adhesive composition. Blocks stacked spoons along the wall. The blocks
of the overlying row are to be installed so as to overlap the vertical
seams between the blocks in the longitudinal and transverse directions, i.e. with ligation of
sutures. Recommended single-row (chain) bandaging system joints.

To ensure the strength and
lack of ventilation by horizontal and vertical (transverse) joints should
be completely filled with adhesive composition.

Masonry walls made
tiers height 1 - 1,2 m. Tier is permitted to reduce the height of 0.8 - 0.9 m.

Each row assembly
begins with the installation in the design position majachnyh blocks, disposable in
the corners and in the intervals 10 - 15 m from one another. By majachnym blocks
pull prichalku and produce it on setting the other blocks
previously marked locations.

Before laying the blocks
to be bonded surfaces are cleaned from dirt and dust during dry weather
selected damp cloth. Thereafter, the adhesive is applied to the bed, the upper unit
is installed in the design position with reconciliation planes level and plumb.
Before applying the adhesive treated metal bonding surface of the blocks
brushed and cleaned of dust formed.

The adhesive bed must be
flat and not reach 1.5 - 2 cm to the wall surface. Leveling of the adhesive
composition is made by means of the comb.

In case of wrong filling
assembly seam or offset its installed unit is lifted, the surface
is cleaned of old glue and the unit is mounted on the fresh adhesive composition.

4.2. Compositions CMC and CMC's
are supplied to blocks in the form of two packages separately containing:
modified sodium silicate and particulate material consisting of a mixture
of filler and hardener waterglass. Clay is prepared immediately
before use by mixing the said components.

The adhesive compositions
are prepared by portions before cooking. The mass is prepared composition
is calculated taking into account its viability and complete use prior to
setting (solidification).

4.3.
Clay is prepared in clean, dry plastic containers manually using
an electric drill fitted with a nozzle to the mixing blade. Spindle
drill (Model IE-IE-1508 or 1511) is to provide an adjustable number of
mixing blade speed.

Initially, the container 10 - 15
L on a support with socket loaded calculated quantity of powdered
material, and stirring was performed for 3 - 5 min. until it is completely
homogenized. Then, powdery component and shuts the calculated amount of
liquid binder and the mixture was stirred until homogeneous for 3
- 5 min. Approximately adhesive must continuously prepare batches of 10 - 15
kg.

The weight ratio of liquid
component to the solid (powdered) should be in the ratio of 1:
1.9 to 1: 2.3 and administered considering consistency (from liquid to
creamy), and adhesive viability. Viability adhesive prepared
in the above proportions is at least 15 - 20 min.

Uncured adhesive on
expiration of the specified time, is utilized.

4.4. Glue is applied to the
surface of the wall elements and the blocks are generally located in
a horizontal position.

After 5 - 10 minutes after
application, the adhesive, due to the thixotropic properties, loses its fluidity and
does not flow to the vertical plane of the article.

A method for applying the adhesive
article depends on the consistency of glue. Flowable adhesives castable consistency
applied manually or mechanized manner by spill, pasty
adhesives - with a spatula or trowel (flowable glue through 10 ... 40 min
after preparation become pasty consistency). Therefore, when
applying such an adhesive method "spill" it should be used at
the destination before moving to the pasty state.

For mechanized
application of adhesive spray guns may be used (such as "Shield"), devices for
applying fine-grained coatings (CSF-468), and others. Since significant adhesion
mineral adhesives to metal working gun metal surfaces
must be protected with a release coating.

The adhesive compositions are applied to
the bonding surfaces of products in the form of continuous "adhesive tracks", placing
them parallel to the long edges of the product, the extreme "glue track" should
be from these edges a distance of 1 - 2 cm.

The width of each "glue
tracks" shall be 30 - 50 mm, height: 6 - 8 mm and the clearance between them 20
- 30 mm. Then, the adhesive composition is distributed uniformly through the comb
on the surface of the block thickness of about 3 mm except the unfilled adhesive
stripe width of 1 - 2 cm along the long edges of the blocks (for better adhesion
of the plaster layer with blocks).

The consistency of the adhesive before
application to a product and the location of the extreme "glue tracks",
limiting the external and internal sides of the product should be such as
to prevent leakage of adhesive from the adhesive joint.

4.5. Mounting structures must
performed immediately after the adhesive application to items or blocks. Alignment
design position adherend member design is allowed
to produce a period of not more than 10 minutes. after the start of gluing. Adhesive consumption CMC
and CMC-x (estimated density of 1400 kg / m 3 ) should be roughly
take 5 ± 7 kg per 1 m 2 of the bonding surface of the blocks and to specify
in each case.

To save a project
block position is recommended to use locking devices in the form of staples,
templates, etc.

4.6. To comply with
the horizontal rows of masonry used poryadovkoy - wood or metal
slats, on which the applied division the distance equal to the thickness of one row of
blocks.

By poryadovkoy attach
the cord-prichalku to verify rows of masonry. To check the
horizontal rows of used rake-level to check the verticality of
the walls and pillars - a plumb, to validate pairing - gon.
Measurement geometric walls are dimensioned using a tape measure and the
folding rule.

. Also listed in §4.3
devices for mixing and applying the adhesive used trowel,
Front socket under the tank for the preparation of glue, plastic tank 3 - 5 L with
a handle and a spout.

As polystyrene for
processing method is similar to a tree, for cutting and changing the shape of the blocks
used handsaw, templates kirochka-hammers, chisels, metal staples and
other carpentry tools.

For the temporary mounting wall
from possible wind pressure applied braces, brackets, connection.

Link masons has
a ladder for safe lifting on stage.

Necessary for the production of
masonry equipment, tools, and accessories are shown in Table. 2.

table 2

Nomenclature of small funds
mechanization for masonry blocks of polystyrene (according TSNIIOMTP)

Nos №

Name

appointment

one

2

3

one.

Rack

Warehousing ties braces, brackets

2.

Bunker Debris

Collection and transportation of construction waste

3.

Stairs

Safe lifting on scaffolding

four.

Tank for glueing of plastic 10 liter with a handle and
a spout

Gluing units, application (bottling) of adhesive on the blocks

five.

Plastic beaker size of 5 - 7 liters of powder

For the measurement the powder portions in the preparation of the adhesive composition

6.

Beaker plastic container 3 - 5 for the liquid phase L

For the measurement, a liquid phase portion in the preparation of the adhesive composition

7.

The plastic container (10 - 15L)

For the preparation of the adhesive (liquid-phase mixing powder)

eight.

A metal spatula or a drill with a nozzle (20 - 50 rev / min)

Preparation of the glue

9.

searchlight tower

Lighting jobs

ten.

Brush hammers finishing type KS

adhesive Application

eleven.

Comb

adhesive Application

12.

Trowel KB type

For part-time work

13.

Hammer-type kirochka MKI

Skolkov polystyrene blocks and hewing

14.

Scrap mounting type LMA or LMV

Offset and flattening during assembly of prefabricated elements

15.

Adjustable wrench

ancillary work

sixteen.

Saw a hacksaw

Cutting blocks, carpentry

17.

Inspection and measuring tools:

 

 

with the level of rake

alignment of horizontal rows of masonry

 

rail

straightness check

 

gon steel 500 x 240

check squareness elements

 

with a plumb line reel

for berthing cord

 

Plummet type 0-600 Construction

check the vertical wall

 

type US1-300 building level

Checking Horizontal masonry

 

Roulette metal type PC-1

counting apertures, holes and wall thickness

 

Roulette-type PC-20

marking the axes of the building

18.

Means of protection:

 

 

fence window openings

safe working environment

 

helmet viniloplastikovaya

safe working environment

 

protective glasses

safe working environment

 

Technical rubber gloves

safe working environment

 

rubber boots

safe working environment

 

safety belt

safe working environment

nineteen.

story-mast

Lighting jobs

20.

scissors manual

armatures

21.

Electric drilling machine type IE-1022a

Drilling holes in concrete structures for fixing
polystyrene wall

22.

Grindstone desktop type electric BET-1

sharpening tools

23.

Scaffolds type polyurethane-4

Production of masonry

24.

Rack-poryadovkoy

Control of the correctness of the masonry joints and precision shutter thickness

25.

staples mooring

Mooring cord with masonry walls

26.

ax building

ancillary work

27.

Konopatka of K-50 steel

caulking cracks

28.

Wardrobe masons Brigade

Storage of tools and accessories

29.

wooden shields inventory

paving funds

thirty.

Pliers

Preparatory work

Read more:   How to use a mini greenhouse

5. ADDITIONAL RULES reinforcement
Masonry of Polystyrene blocks

In order to increase the support
capacity of masonry structures, to communicate with the frame elements, with plaster
layers or brick veneer masonry reinforced by laying metal
grids in horizontal joints. For a reliable anchorage reinforcement and protection against
corrosion of joints should be completely filled with adhesive composition. Compositions
CMC and CMC's contain water glass, in connection with which creates an alkaline environment,
a similar environment in cement-sand mortar, which provides the required
protection against corrosion of reinforcement.

For reinforced
seams thickness of 3 - 4 mm when using a 3 mm diameter rods act
as follows. When using rectangular grids welded to their
final stacking mark out the actual position on the surface of the blocks
of the transverse grid bars, and then cut grooves in polystyrene section 5'5 mm mesh and placed so that the transverse rods are buried in
said grooves. For these purposes it is possible to use zigzag grid, in
which the transverse and longitudinal bars of 3 mm in diameter, arranged in one
plane. To further reduce the thickness of sutures and to increase
the thermal resistance of the wall is recommended to use the grid for
armotsementnyh structures of rods with a diameter of 0.5 - 1.2 mm (SNP 2.03.03-85,
Appendix 2).

For reinforcement of the plaster
layer with the institution rods in horizontal masonry joints can be used
fine mesh metal screens with mesh sizes of 10 - 20 mm. In transverse
reinforcement mesh partitions to be manufactured and laid so that not
less than two rebars acted on 2 - 3 mm on the inner surface of the
partition.

6. Quality control

Technical quality control
works for the preparation of adhesive compositions and adhesive compounds
polystyrene blocks should be performed in accordance with the requirements of
TR-2513-203-00284807-98 and include the following steps:

- control over the technology
of adhesives preparation and their use;

- checking the quality of the installation
of structures made of polystyrene blocks with adhesive joints.

Quality control of mounting
constructions of the bonded blocks is made by visual inspection and testing to
axial tension control glued polystyrene samples cubes
measuring 10 x 10 x 10 cm. The samples were stored under the same conditions as the bonded
structure.

Visually design
set degree of filling of the adhesive compound composition and matching
the design position of blocks in the design.

The adhesive strength of the
peel adhesive joints control samples determined according to GOST
22690 in terms regulated n. 12 table specifications TU
2513-208-00284807-98.

The number of control samples on
each floor should be at least 12 for every two sections of the house.

When erecting buildings in
winter conditions, using X-CMC samples aged 5 - 7 days
tested after 3 hours of thawing at a temperature of not lower than 20 + 5 ° C.

7. ACCEPTANCE polystyrene STAN

7.1. The acceptance of the executed
works on erection of walls should be performed before plastering their
faces.

Structural elements hidden
in the production process, including:

places bearing bridges;

fixing prefabricated
reinforced concrete structures: balconies, etc .;

a stone laid structure
reinforcement;

slab insulation - to be
taken on documents certifying their compliance with the project and
normative-technical documentation.

7.2. When accepting the finished
work should be checked: the correctness of bandaging of seams and their thickness and filling,
as well as horizontal rows and vertical rows of masonry;

quality of the brick veneer
wall and its mounting;

dimensions and
position of structures;

fixing polystyrene
walls to the main walls, frames and overlap.

7.3. Variations in the size and
position of the stone structures from polystyrene blocks not project
should exceed specified in Table. SNP 3.03.01-87 34, except
the thickness of masonry joints, which must not exceed 0.5 mm in the absence of
reinforcement sutures and - 0.5 + 1.0 mm in the presence of the reinforcement.

8. SAFETY

8.1. The height of each tier
masonry adjusted so as to masonry level after each
movement was not less than two rows of blocks above the level of scaffolding or
overlapping. The clutch should be carried out only with the intermediate floor and
inventory scaffolding. It is forbidden to erect walls, standing on them. When erecting
masonry in hazardous areas, masons have to use safety belts,
attaching using them to stable parts of the building.

8.2. When working with glue
mineral compositions should avoid exposure to the liquid component
(water glass) and the freshly prepared glue on eye mucosa avoiding
the alkali burn.

When working with mineral
adhesives should use protective clothing, rubber gloves and boots, GOST
12.4.103, goggles or visors to GOST 12.4.013.

After contact with the liquid
component or the KVM freshly prepared composition to the skin should be rinse
with pure water, and then skin with Vaseline grease. Eye -
rinse thoroughly with water, drip 2% solution of boric acid or sulfacetamide,
then turn to the optician.

When spills of liquid
component or freshly should be carefully collected compositions and
residues wash water. In places where you can not wash off the liquid component to
reduce slipperiness should sprinkle them with sand.

On consuming the container
the liquid component shall show warning notice "When
Eye rinse water."

APPENDIX VI.
MOUNTING BRACKETS FORESTS

single storey FORESTS

1 - frame; 2 - support; 3 -
flooring; 4 - a shield; 5 - fencing; 6 - grid; 7 - shed; 8 - a loop; 9 - ladder

NOTES TO ANNEX VI

Annex VI is an extract
from the instructions for use of hinged mounting scaffolding for works on
the facades of buildings under construction and 522541-002-02495276-98 TSNIIOMTP MNIITEP. Forests can
be performed in two types: available as single bunk. The type and design
of hinged mounting forests defined building structure and its supporting
elements, view the work performed.

Single-stage hinged
mounting timber are a frame with supports, interacting with
the building elements.

The frame provides working
decks as a shield, moreover, the intermediate set at 1.5 m
shield (flooring). The enclosure is a spatial framework welded
structure of U-sections and angles. From outside the forest is installed
protective metal grid.

Assembling and dismantling scaffolding
made cranes (tower, jib) with slinging as a
conventional two-branch rope sling, and with the help of special traverse.

When installing scaffolding on buildings
should be provided for openings in the wall, which are mounted in the support
brackets, fixed in the openings by means of wooden wedges.

In the opening wall is inserted
resistant gasket.

The walls, which are arranged
openings must be designed for a load of forests, taking into account their loading
materials, equipment and people according to the draft of the work.

Forest frame must be
calculated on the strength of the load and their own weight.

In accordance with the
structural characteristics of the building and step bearing interior walls
developed the required number of standard sizes mounted installation forests,
differ from each other only in the longitudinal dimensions of the platform.

Hinged mounting timber
equipped with fences, the ends can get referrals to neighboring
forests. On top of scaffolding arrange the release liner of a continuous sheeting. Within the
forest arrange several intermediate decking planks 50 mm thick.
The gap between the intermediate decks and erected outer wall must
be 50 mm.

Attach mounting forests
may be two options. First Embodiment - fastening of the overlap
by means of supporting brackets and anchorages. Holes in the ceiling in this
case it is necessary to form during concreting, according to the design and
production work.

The second option fixing
forests - for the internal load-bearing walls. Fixing is done with the help of
arms and fingers.

Lifting and installation of forest
produce by truck or tower crane for special hinges.

The supply of goods on the hanging
forest produce after their final consolidation. Brick, mortar,
reinforcing mesh is fed into the working zone crane. Installation and supply of window
jumpers produce crane.

Workplace managers
bricklayers, painters and other workers includes the portion of the wall being built and part of the
curtain of forests, publishing information and are working. The width of the working
place must be located between the bearing braced frames. On consoles
mounted scaffolding to place loads prohibited. The working area must be 0.6 -
0.7 m.

RISKASHVELLERA .SHVELLER .SHVELLERRAZMERY. BALKA.SHVELLER ...

Channels made of several shapes and sizes, which can be categorized as follows:

  • U - sloping shelves internal faces;
  • P - with parallel faces shelves;
  • E - efficient parallel-sided shelves;
  • L - light series with parallel edges of shelves;
  • C - special.

 

Symbols of the cross section of channel bar sizes used in the tables:

  • h - height of sill;
  • b - the width of the shelves;
  • s - wall thickness;
  • t - the thickness of the flange;
  • R - Internal radius of curvature;
  • r - the radius of curvature of the shelf;
  • X - distance from the Y-Y axis to the outer face of the wall sill.

Legend to the  tables sills size :

  • F - cross-sectional area;
  • I - moment of inertia;
  • W - resistance moment;
  • i - radius of gyration;
  • S x  - static moment half-section.

 

Table U-sections with dimensions sloping inner flange faces.

Channel size table sills

 

Number sill Series I

h

b

s

t

R

r

The cross sectional area F cm 2

Mass 1m / kg

Reference values ​​for the axes

X0 cm

no more

XX

YY

mm

Ix cm 4

Wx cm 3

Ix cm

Sx cm 3

Iy cm 4

Wy cm 3

i0 cm

5U

50

32

4.4

7.0

6.0

2.5

6.16

4.84

22.8

9.1

1.92

5.59

5.61

2.75

0.95

1.16

6.5U

65

36

4.4

7.2

6.0

2.5

7.51

5.90

48.6

15.0

2.54

9.00

8.70

3.68

1.08

1.24

8U

80

40

4.5

7.4

6.5

2.5

8.98

7.05

89.4

22.4

3.16

23.30

12.80

4.75

1.19

1.31

10U

100

46

4.5

7.6

7.0

3.0

10.90

8.59

174.0

34.8

3.99

20.40

20.40

6.46

1.37

1.44

12U

120

52

4.8

7.8

7.5

3.0

13.30

10.40

304.0

50.6

4.78

29.60

31.20

8.52

1.53

1.54

14U

140

58

4.9

8.1

8.0

3.0

15.60

12.30

491.0

70.2

5.60

40.80

45.40

11.00

1.70

1.67

16U

160

64

5.0

8.4

8.5

3.5

18.10

14.20

747.0

93.4

6.42

54.10

63.30

13.80

1.87

1.80

16aU

160

68

5.0

9.0

8.5

3.5

19.50

15.30

823.0

103.0

6.49

59.40

78.80

16.40

2.01

2.00

18U

180

70

5.1

8.7

9.0

3.5

20.70

16.30

1090.0

121.0

7.24

69.80

86.00

17.00

2.04

1.94

18aU

180

74

5.1

9.3

9.0

3.5

22.20

17.40

1190.0

132.0

7.32

76.10

105.00

20.00

2.18

2.13

20U

200

76

5.2

9.0

9.5

4.0

23.40

18.40

1520.0

152.0

8.07

87.80

113.00

20.50

2.20

2.07

22U

220

82

5.4

9.5

10.0

4.0

26.70

21.00

2110.0

192.0

8.89

110.00

151.00

25.10

2.37

2.21

24U

240

90

5.6

10.0

10.5

4.0

30.60

24.00

2900.0

242.0

9.73

139.00

208.00

31.60

2.60

2.42

27U

270

95

6.0

10.5

11.0

4.5

35.20

27.70

4160.0

308.0

10.90

178.00

262.00

37.30

2.73

2.47

30U

300

100

6.5

11.0

12.0

5.0

40.50

31.80

5810.0

387.0

12.00

224.00

327.00

43.60

2.84

2.52

33y

330

105

7.0

11.7

13.0

5.0

46.50

36.50

7980.0

484.0

13.10

281.00

410.00

51.80

2.97

2.59

36U

360

110

7.5

12.6

14.0

6.0

53.40

41.90

10820.0

601.0

14.20

350.00

513.00

61.70

3.10

2.68

40U

400

115

8.0

13.5

15.0

6.0

61.50

48.30

15220.0

761.0

15.70

444.00

642.00

73.40

3.23

2.75

Shelves internal faces sills In the series should have a slope of 4-10%, no more and no less. However, the manufacturer can make a request for internal faces slant shelves slightly different, but it should not be more than 8% when the amount h    of 300 mm and a 5% h> 300 mm.

 

Table U-sections with parallel faces with dimensions shelves.

Channel size table sills

 

Number sill Series II

h

b

s

t

R

r

The cross sectional area F cm 2

Mass 1m / kg

Reference values ​​for the axes

X0 cm

no more

XX

YY

mm

Ix cm 4

Wx cm 3

Ix cm

Sx cm 3

Iy cm 4

Wy cm 3

Iy cm

5P

50

32

4.4

7.0

6.0

3.5

6.16

4.84

22.8

9.1

1.92

5.61

5.95

2.99

0.98

1.21

6.5P

65

36

4.4

7.2

6.0

3.5

7.51

5.90

48.8

15.0

2.55

9.02

9.35

4.06

1.12

1.29

8P

80

40

4.5

7.4

6.5

3.5

8.98

7.05

89.8

22.5

3.16

13.30

13.90

5.31

1.24

1.38

10p

100

46

4.5

7.6

7.0

4.0

10.90

8.59

175.0

34.9

3.99

20.50

22.60

7.37

1.44

1.53

12P

120

52

4.8

7.8

7.5

4.5

13.30

10.40

305.0

50.8

4.79

29.70

34.90

9.84

1.62

1.66

14P

140

58

4.9

8.1

8.0

4.5

15.60

12.30

493.0

70.4

5.61

40.90

51.50

12.90

1.81

1.82

16P

160

64

5.0

8.4

8.5

5.0

18.10

14.20

750.0

93.8

6.44

54.30

72.80

16.40

2.00

1.97

16aP

160

68

5.0

9.0

8.5

5.0

19.50

15.30

827.0

103.0

6.51

59.50

90.50

19.60

2.15

2.19

18P

180

70

5.1

8.7

9.0

5.0

20.70

16.30

1090.0

121.0

7.26

70.00

100.00

20.60

2.20

2.14

18aP

180

74

5.1

9.3

9.0

5.0

22.20

17.40

1200.0

133.0

7.34

76.30

123.00

24.30

2.35

2.36

20P

200

76

5.2

9.0

9.5

5.5

23.40

18.40

1530.0

153.0

8.08

88.00

134.00

25.20

2.39

2.30

22P

220

82

5.4

9.5

10.0

6.0

26.70

21.00

2120.0

193.0

8.90

111.00

178.00

31.00

2.58

2.47

24P

240

90

5.6

10.0

10.5

6.0

30.60

24.00

2910.0

243.0

9.75

139.00

248.00

39.50

2.85

2.72

27P

270

95

6.0

10.5

11.0

6.5

35.20

27.70

4180.0

310.0

10.90

178.00

314.00

46.70

2.99

2.78

30P

300

100

6.5

11.0

12.0

7.0

40.50

31.80

5830.0

389.0

12.00

224.00

393.00

54.80

3.12

2.83

33P

330

105

7.0

11.7

13.0

7.5

46.50

36.50

8010.0

486.0

13.10

281.00

491.00

64.60

3.25

2.90

36P

360

110

7.5

12.6

14.0

8.5

53.40

41.90

10850.0

603.0

14.30

350.00

611.00

76.30

3.38

2.99

40P

400

115

8.0

13.5

15.0

9.0

61.50

48.30

15260.0

763.0

15.80

445.00

760.00

89.90

3.51

3.05

For U-series V and P is the size, which is not subject to control - a maximum deviation of the wall thickness. 

 

Table dimensioned U-sections with parallel sides economical shelves.

Channel size table sills

 

Number sill Series E

h

b

s

t

R

r

The cross sectional area F cm 2

Mass 1m / kg

Reference values ​​for the axes

X0 cm

no more

XX

YY

mm

Ix cm 4

Wx cm 3

Ix cm

Sx with m 3

Iy cm 4

Wy cm 3

Iy cm

5E

50

32

4.2

7.0

6.5

2.5

6.10

4.79

22.9

9.17

1.94

5.62

6.02

3.05

0.993

1.23

6.5E

65

36

4.2

7.2

6.5

2.5

7.41

5.82

48.9

15.05

2.57

9.02

9.42

4.13

1.127

1.32

8E

80

40

4.2

7.4

7.5

2.5

8.82

6.92

90.0

22.50

3.19

13.31

13.93

5.38

1.257

1.41

10E

100

46

4.2

7.6

9.0

3.0

10.79

8.47

175.9

35.17

4.04

20.55

22.68

7.47

1.450

1.56

12E

120

52

4.5

7.8

9.5

3.0

13.09

10.24

307.0

51.17

4.84

29.75

35.12

10.03

1.638

1.70

14E

140

58

4.6

8.1

10.0

3.0

15.41

12.15

495.7

70.81

5.67

40.96

51.76

13.13

1.833

1.86

16E

160

64

4.7

8.4

11.0

3.5

17.85

14.01

755.5

94.43

6.50

54.41

73.17

16.70

2.024

2.02

18E

180

70

4.8

8.7

11.5

3.5

20.40

16.01

1097.9

121.99

7.34

70.05

100.51

20.87

2.219

2.18

20E

200

76

4.9

9.0

12.0

4.0

23.02

18.07

1537.1

153.71

8.17

88.03

134.07

25.54

2.413

2.35

22E

220

82

5.1

9.5

13.0

4.0

26.36

20.69

2134.2

194.02

9.00

111.00

179.05

31.54

2.606

2.52

24E

240

90

5.3

10.0

13.0

4.0

30.19

23.69

2927.0

243.92

9.85

139.08

249.03

40.07

2.872

2.78

27E

270

95

5.8

10.5

13.0

4.5

34.87

27.37

4200.2

311.12

10.97

178.25

316.24

47.43

3.011

2.83

30E

300

100

6.3

11.0

13.0

5.0

39.94

31.35

5837.1

389.14

12.09

224.00

395.57

55.58

3.147

2.88

33E

330

105

6.9

11.7

13.0

5.0

46.15

36.14

8021.8

488.17

13.18

281.23

497.02

65.78

3.282

2.94

36E

360

110

7.4

12.6

14.0

6.0

52.90

41.53

10864.5

603.58

14.33

350.05

618.92

77.76

3.420

3.04

40E

400

115

7.9

13.5

15.5

6.0

61.11

47.97

15307.9

765.40

15.83

445.41

770.89

91.80

3.552

3.10

Dimensions sill cost (series E) is controlled in accordance with GOST 8240-97 (table data are consistent).

 

Table with dimensions sills light series parallel-sided shelves.

Channel size table sills

 

Number sill Series A

h

b

s

t

R

r

The cross sectional area F cm 2

Mass 1m / kg

Reference values ​​for the axes

Xcm

no more

X - X

Y - Y

mm

Ix cm 4

Wx cm 3

Ix cm

Sx cm 3

Iy cm 4

Wy cm 3

i0 cm

12L

120

thirty

3.0

4.8

7

-

6.39

5.02

135.26

22.54

4.60

13.43

5.02

2.24

0.89

0.76

14L

140

32

3.2

5.6

7

-

7.57

5.94

212.94

30.42

5.31

18.23

6.55

2.70

0.93

0.78

16 liters

160

35

3.4

5.3

eight

-

9.04

7.10

331.96

41.49

6.06

24.84

9.23

3.46

1.01

0.83

18L

180

40

3.6

5.6

eight

-

10.81

8.49

503.87

55.98

6.83

33.49

14.64

4.10

1.16

0.94

20L

200

45

3.8

6.0

9

-

12.89

10.12

748.17

74.82

7.62

44.59

22.37

6.51

1.32

1.06

22L

220

50

4.0

6.4

ten

-

15.11

11.86

1070.97

97.36

8.42

57.82

32.85

8.61

1.47

1.19

24l

240

55

4.2

6.8

ten

-

17.41

13.66

1476.39

123.03

9.21

72.90

46.25

11.04

1.63

1.31

27l

270

60

4.5

7.3

eleven

-

20.77

16.30

2218.16

164.31

10.33

97.48

65.10

14.17

1.77

1.40

30L

300

65

4.8

7.8

eleven

-

24.30

19.07

3186.74

212.45

11.45

126.24

89.08

17.84

1.91

1.51

A series of channels must have a wall deflection amount of not more than 0,15s. 

 

Table special U-sections with dimensions.

Channel size table sills

 

Number sill Series C

h

b

s

t

R

r

The slope of the shelves %

The cross sectional area F cm 2

Mass 1m / kg

Reference values ​​for the axes

X0 cm

no more

X-X

Y-Y

mm

Ix cm 4

Wx cm 3

ix cm

Iy cm 4

Wy cm 3

Iy cm

8C

80

45

5.5

9.0

9.0

1.5

6

11.80

9.26

115.82

28.95

3.13

22.24

7.63

1.38

1.57

14C

140

58

6.0

9.5

9.5

4.75

-

18.51

14.53

563.70

80.50

5.52

53.20

13.01

1.70

1.71

14Sa

140

60

8.0

9.5

9.5

5.0

ten

21.30

16.72

609.10

87.01

5.35

61.02

14.09

1.69

1.67

16C

160

63

6.5

10.0

10.0

5.0

-

21.95

17.53

866.20

108.30

6.28

73.30

16.30

1.83

1.80

16Sa

160

65

8.5

10.0

10.0

5.0

-

25.15

19.74

934.50

116.80

6.10

83.40

17.55

1.82

1.75

18C

180

68

7.0

10.5

10.5

5.3

-

25.70

20.20

1272.00

141.00

7.04

98.50

20.10

1.96

1.88

18Sa

180

70

9.0

10.5

10.5

5.3

-

29.30

23.00

1370.00

152.00

6.84

111.00

21.30

1.95

1.84

18Sb

180

100

8.0

10.5

10.5

5.0

6

34.04

26.72

1791.01

199.00

7.25

305.48

43.58

3.00

2.99

20C

200

73

7.0

11.0

11.0

5.5

ten

28.83

22.63

1780.37

178.04

7.86

128.04

24.19

2.11

2.02

20Sa

200

75

9.0

11.0

11.0

5.5

ten

32.83

25.77

1913.71

191.37

7.64

143.63

25.88

2.09

1.95

20Sb

200

100

8.0

11.0

11.0

5.5

6

36.58

28.71

2360.88

236.09

8.03

327.23

46.30

2.99

2.93

24C

240

85

9.5

14.0

14.0

7.0

-

44.46

34.90

3841.35

320.11

9.29

268.89

43.70

2.46

2.35

26C

260

65

10.0

16.0

15.0

3.0

-

44.09

34.61

4088.00

314.50

9.63

1115.60

171.60

5.03

3.91

26Sa

260

90

10.0

15.0

15.0

7.5

eight

50.60

39.72

5130.83

394.68

10.07

343.15

52.62

2.60

2.48

30C

300

85

7.5

13.5

13.5

7.0

ten

43.88

34.44

6045.43

403.03

11.74

260.74

41.41

2.44

2.20

30Sa

300

87

9.5

13.5

13.5

7.0

ten

49.88

39.15

6495.43

433.03

11.41

288.78

43.93

2.41

2.13

30Sb

300

89

11.5

13.5

13.5

7.0

ten

55.88

43.86

6945.43

463.03

11.15

315.35

46.29

2.38

2.09

Channel Series - a hot-rolled steel channels, which are of general and special purpose and can have such dimensions: height 50 - 400 mm, the width of the shelves 32 - 15 mm. Dimensions open U series are controlled in accordance with GOST 8240-97.

 

Limit deviation parameters (U-sections sizes) in the table.

Channel size table sills

 

Parameter

Interval parameter values

Maximum deviation

The height h

Up to 80

± 1.5

Over 80 to 200

± 2.0

Over 200 to 400

± 3.0

Flange width b

Up to 40

± 1.5

Over 40 to 89

± 2.0

More than 89

± 3.0

Flange thickness t

To 10

-0.5

From 10 to 11

-0.8

More than 11

-1.0

The wall thickness s

Up to 5.1

± 0.5

More than 5.1 to 6.0

± 0.6

over 6.0

± 0.7

Misalignment shelves D when the shelf width b , max

Up to 95

1.0

over 95

0.015b

The deflection wall ƒ height h Profile section, not more than

Up to 100

0.5

100 to 200

1.0

Over 200 to 400

1.5

DOCK 35SH1 I-beam, 25SH1 ISHVELLERA20

SOEDINENIESHVELLEROVMEZHDU IS

Any weld structure and weakens its individual nodes. Therefore, in order to reduce the construction of welded joints at high loads on the support beams supporting structures common to use the I-beam and metal trough. Sill welding during installation of bearing parts of the structure is particularly important step, but it is often difficult and the inability to fulfill strict rules welding (GOST).

Design features compound sills

General information on the sill

Steel is a metal channel bar product which has a U-shaped sectional profile. This design allows for a minimum flow of material, a metal, to obtain high structural characteristics. Methods of making U-sections (flexible on a special machine or by hot rolled) do not influence the choice of welding techniques at its connection, but only on the general strength properties.

The main advantages are aimed at strengthening sill individual structural units and are:

  1. The possibility to withstand high axial loads.
  2. The high resistance to bending at the central load.
  3. The connectivity without use of welding.

And so, these are the advantages and disadvantages are when welding sills.

Currently available five types of channel bars:

  • special;
  • with shelves of different sizes;
  • equilateral;
  • with a certain slant shelf edges;
  • parallel-sided shelves.

The greatest strength of the connection can be achieved when welding with equal channel parallel faces shelves. They are the most in demand in the construction sector.

Difficulties sills compound

For prefabricated metal sill worked well, but the tiniest error in their compounds cause critical violation of the strength of the whole structure. Each weld itself weakens the strength of steel by 5-7%, despite the fact that the weld metal has a higher strength characteristics than the metal base part.Connect sill

 

The problem lies in the very technology of welding, preheating in the right metal and welding experience. Uncomfortable position during assembly of certain components, as well as properly selected suture leads to the fact that the welding heat affected zone (zone melting is not uniform) loses 20% of its strength. It is the most vulnerable point of connection and for each weld two of them, on both sides. Standard provides the most common connection node, but not all.

Total:

  1. All the recommended norms of GOST can not be neglected.
  2. U-sections by welding GOST much stronger, even when conditions of an additional structural reinforcement.
  3. All additional plates after welding to each other end to end must be performed exclusively outside sills.
  4. Welding sill inner corners only weaken the overall structure, so of cooking in the internal corners as the inside of the channel, is not desirable.
  5. Welding is possible not only for guests, as it is sometimes inconvenient, but also based on the recommendations.

What welding preferably connected sill

Arc welding

Features of the use of electrodes and the possibility of selection of their basic characteristics do arc welding most preferred for connecting sills. The most high-quality weld is obtained by using electrodes SSSI, but there are some features of their use.

recommendations:

  1. It is desirable to perform overlapped connections.
  2. Working with these electrodes requires experience.
  3. Before working electrode should be ignited in a special furnace at a temperature of 250 C for one hour.
  4. The metal should be carefully prepared in accordance with GOST.
  5. Welding is necessary to use a short arc of average power with reverse polarity.
  6. It is easier to cook at straight polarity as the electrode burns slowly, but then you need to follow the weld pool. It should not outrun the arc.
  7. With this connection, you must be sure to inspect for internal defects.weld shape

 

Mode and directly welding the seam speed depends on the type of compound, but the most optimal in manual welding is 20 m / h.

Gas welding

When connecting channel bars often completely renounce the use of oxygen-gas welding. The heating temperature and the heating zone is large, and accordingly the weld unstable even greater heating zone, are not conducive to the choice of the connecting method. Negative thermal influence, as well as overheating of the seam area, gives rise to unnecessary stresses and internal metal to a strong deformation of general structure (beams).

But gas cutting followed by edges and gas welding of steel structures ready to correct defects is used frequently.

Common embodiments sills compound

To connect two channels are used between two main options. Select compounds of embodiment depends:

  • Conditions of the seam;
  • the length of the weld and the number of welders for its execution;
  • the type of load and its influence zone (most often it is the compression applied to the mid-section of the center);
  • the thickness and type of sill;
  • of the maximum total load on the structure, the required strength.

The main types of compounds, and the most common of the metal U-sections obtained in practice by using the most convenient method for welding.

Welding U-sections according to GOST.

Used arc welding (GOST 11534) or submerged arc welding (GOST 15164) with electrodes UONI. First, you need to weld thicker items - shelves channels, and only then less thick - wall.welding sills

 

butt welding

Most often used because it is the most economical. If the main criteria for joining sills - simplicity and speed, rather than the quality and reliability, it is worth looking at this joint. The welding must be performed on both sides with a sufficient penetration depth. The assembly conditions and taking into account the non-use of such compounds for the assembly of individual construction elements are allowed sided welding podvarki root.

Particular attention to the processing of edges:

  1. If the thickness of the sill shelves up to 6 mm, the bevel edges are not produced.
  2. When the thickness of the shelves 12 mm bevel 30 is made at an angle.
  3. With a thickness of over 12 mm shelves bevel edge must perform on the inner side sill and at an obtuse angle. At this thickness can use V-shaped and X-shaped seam.butt-welding

 

Description butt-welding process:

  1. Beam is set so that the walls are in the horizontal position.
  2. Carried bevel edge according to the thickness of the metal.
  3. Mounted to the second beam sill butt welding with a gap of 3 mm using a crane.
  4. Performed tack channel bars between a point in the seam with a pitch of 40 mm.
  5. Checked the straightness of the resulting structure.
  6. The main joint weld must be carried out without interruption, from the middle of the wall towards the shelves.

To reduce internal stresses and deformations of the beams and general also recommended to strengthen the structure immediately after the mounting of the beam.

Welding plates

To avoid common defects - cracks is necessary when welding butt pads and add. Gap with finished edges in the assembled junction should be at most 8 mm and wherein the lining is fastened by welded edges. The thickness of the lining depends on the welding conditions and the thickness of the parent metal. For this type of compounds is recommended to use the automatic submerged arc welding.

All lining better scald carefully along the contour with all the recommendations when performing overlapping seams. In situations where a scald from all directions does not work, you need to fill in all the gaps corrosion liquid.

Description of the process of matching two channels:splicing two U circuit

 

  1. Sill ends are welded to each other in accordance with the GOST or pretreatment edges.
  2. From inside the weld carefully trimmed to a flat plane.
  3. Inside the sill is welded first lining - the steel strip of the same brand sill length equal to the width multiplied by the factor 5. The bandwidth must match the width of U-sections (before rounding to the shelves), the thickness of the strip equal to the thickness of the metal structure.
  4. The band is connected only to the seams on the longitudinal sides.
  5. The second pad on the role of edges and welded on both sides of the strip.
  6. Edge should be carefully boil on a path on both sides and be sure to weld close to the band.

This method is suitable for splicing of I-beams, only need to duplicate all on both sides. On the strength of the spliced ​​structure thus be only a few percent (10%) depending on the overall length to yield a monolithic product.

The compound U-sections in the box

For reinforced hollow beam supporting structure often connect two inwardly open U-flanges, forming a so-called box. The technology of such a compound is similar to the U-sections by welding butt.

Description of the joining process:Connect channel bars

 

  1. The seam is performed according to GOST or division edge or leave a gap.
  2. The gap width is selected based on the thickness of the metal beams (minimum 3 mm), which is required for preventing slide hardfacing weld metal.
  3. Grinder to smooth out the seams absolutely not received, this leads to a weakening of the connection.
  4. Two channel bar is necessary to fix clamps.
  5. The connecting weld is performed from inside to outside, either by sticking when working alone welder, either simultaneously moving to the edges of two welders.

Make such connections in the field during installation on-site construction is only possible when welding in the horizontal lowered position. In other cases, more rational and safer to use butt joints with a consequential increase in pads.

The most common metal of the sills

Beams and possible variants of their welding

Butt joint between the same channel bar

 

Butt joint between identical channels higher. Overhead mounting joints are performed on a thin metal (1,2) and then to a thicker 3. The compound used for thin structures.

Butt joint

 

Combined compound . After performing the butt joints are often used and additionally a corner seam (4). The longitudinal seams are never brought to the closure beam by a distance which depends on the width of the welded metal and sill shelves. Thus, for low carbon steel is the distance equals the width of the shelves (B), and doped metals - two shelves size (2B). To perform average power designs use this type of connection.

combined connection

 

A compound with an offset seam. This compound was performed by two welders and welding is used for U-sections with different thicknesses of shelves. The first seam is performed for thicker metal (1). Butt joint (3) is conducted according to the rules, and corner joints (4) must be done simultaneously by two welders (beam from outside to inside).

A compound with the displaced seam

 

When manufacturing a complex metal using these same methods of welding. The whole structure is divided into individual nodal compounds in which welding occurs sills. Mounting structure always start from the middle to the edges of the U-sections and with a thicker metal and a thinner after. Close to each other placed joints is not desirable, it is better to use a metal liner and additional structural reinforcement.

The compound U-sections requires a certain sequence of actions and accurate installation plan. The importance of each weld should not be underestimated, as there is a great risk of losing all the advantages of using U-sections for the strength of structures.

  1. Features and subtleties of butt welding: entrust the process of professional welders

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