Content

- Calculation of steel structures in order to increase the reliability of buildings
- Calculation of steel structures based on SNP
- Calculation of steel structures in relation to their cost-effectiveness
- Calculator metalware - determine the load
- Calculating the cost of metal products
- METAL TO ORDER | QUALITY CONTROL. LOW PRICES

## Calculation of steel structures in order to increase the reliability of buildings

Products made of steel and cast iron, rolled or cast, commonly used in the construction of load-bearing elements of buildings, thereby **metal structures calculation** must be extremely accurate.

## Calculation of steel structures based on SNP

*Determining the suitability of any product metallurgical industry starts with the grade of steel or cast iron, which is most responsible for the product laying tasks* . In other words, if the structure is to be collected from a number of metal products, a carrier, needed some brand alloys, unless the carrier can use their own, or variants of lower strength. However, since you will buy finished products, think about the properties of metals do not have to, just need to choose the most suitable material with optimal characteristics.

First of all, you need to decide whether you will collect construction welding, or it will be a bolted connection parts. Based on set parameters, you will choose one or another type of metal. It is recommended to look at the SNP II-23-81, since there are some standards for each type of metalwork. For the most part used in the construction of a general-purpose metal products, namely brand and I-beams, pipes of different profile types (circle, square, rectangle), angles, channels. Also, in the course are special products, obtained by rolling - I-beams, sheet profile.

All hardware classified by assortment, i.e., on such things as the shape, dimensions, specific weight per unit length (usually per meter), allowable errors of dimensions and geometry, and even mode of transportation. Also, all Metal-products are produced in accordance with GOST, or, more rarely, the technical conditions of the enterprise. Selection of the best to do, based on how favorable characteristics for a given task. Calculation of steel structures in relation to rolling economy performed separately, for this there are special formula, and we'll start from that stage.

## Calculation of steel structures in relation to their cost-effectiveness

The view that the smaller the size and weight of metal, the better it will be of structure - wrongly. Predictably, thinner corners withstand less stress and it is valid with respect to any materials from steel or cast iron. Therefore, the main criteria for determining the efficiency of the product, whether it be I-beams or channels, are used quite a lot. In particular, conventional and plastic moment resistance (respectively, *W* and *W _{n}* ), the moment of inertia

*I*, the radius of gyration

*i*and resistance to cross-sectional slice

*C*. It is for all these parameters is determined by the most favorable form of the product.

_{c}

For special cases more logical to use a value such as a specific profile in cross-sectional area which is designated as *A _{w}* and determined by the formula

**A**. There

_{w}= A / W^{2/3}*A*- cross sectional area profile, or otherwise, a predetermined amount of material, and

*W*- resistance moment equal to unity. Comparing the various structural elements and having indices

**N = N**that can express any of the characteristics of the material (

_{1}*W*,

*W*,

_{n}*I*,

*I*or

*C*), we still do not always get identical profiles. It is therefore necessary to perform the calculation of metal structures according to the formula for determining the relative efficiency of one material relative to another:

_{c}**Δ = (F / F**, the result of calculation is expressed as a percentage. Here

_{1}- 1)^{. }100%*F*and

*F1*can mean a lot of the cost of a specific unit or the entire length of the metal-product and cross-sectional area.

## Calculator metalware - determine the load

No matter what is done out of rental - farm or beam, it immediately begins to act a certain bending strength, torsion, and many others. In addition to the added time and other pressures that must be provided, for example, the weight of the snow cover on the roof or even the accumulation of dust and dirt on the metal slabs. But first of all it should take into account the influence of force, and calculate their help calculator metalwork.

So, first of all consider the most significant stresses occurring due to self-weight of construction and many other factors - bending and bending with stretching. Calculate possible by the formulas **σ = M / W <= [** σ] and **σ = M / W + F /** A <= [σ] , respectively, where *M* - bending moment, *W* - bending resistance, *F* - applied force (e.g., weight ), *A* - cross sectional area of the structure. *F* , in turn, is calculated by the formula **F = F _{Q} + F _{G}** , wherein

*F*- force generated payload and

_{Q}*F*- force that occurs due to its own weight.

_{G}Sometimes it is necessary to foresee permissible flexibility truss rod, in this case a formula **λ = l / r _{min}** , wherein the

*l*- length of the rod, and

**r**, where

_{min}= (J_{min}/ A)^{1/2}*J*- minimum moment of inertia . Actually, you can do without computation using tables to also focus on the buckling coefficient

_{min}*cp*:

λ |
40 |
50 |
60 |
70 |
80 |
90 |

φ |
0.89 |
0.86 |
0.82 |
0.76 |
0.70 |
0.62 |

λ |
100 |
110 |
120 |
130 |
140 |
150 |

φ |
0.51 |
0.43 |
0.37 |
0.33 |
0.29 |
0.26 |

Limit load values as well as the strains are listed in the Code of Practice for each possible type of construction.

## Calculating the cost of metal products

Most often all those who are not too familiar with the price range for hardware, go to the construction market, which go for hours, studying the costs of different profiles and sheet metal. In fact, this is correct, since all cost estimates are based on market prices. However, the overall construction cost is made up not only of material prices, but also taking into account the complexity of the assembly, as well as from the value in the metal transportation costs. In addition, investment demand and preparation of design drawings package.

His most simple way to determine the efficiency of your choice of a hot-rolled profile (for private use, when there is no reason to turn to specialists) - according to the method of manufacture. Thus, the most readily available and inexpensive products are obtained by hot rolling, profile and profile products, sheet materials. From these same products obtained by further cold rolling the bent profiles, corrugated sundries, which understandably more expensive than conventional steel sheets. Exemption for cheapness make seamless pipes, which are much more affordable electric.

Recent produced by continuous cold forming of sheet metal obtained by hot rolling. Seams prepared using high frequency currents, which form the ring on the end of the arc electrode. Similarly produced not only by welded tubes, but also closed profiles of rectangular cross-sections. The last few expensive if they are made by changing the shape gnutosvarnyh tubes with circular cross-cut.

- Author: Michael Malofeev

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## METAL TO ORDER | QUALITY CONTROL. LOW PRICES

In modern construction can not do without a material such as metal. Products and structures made of metal can last for years, having a high degree of reliability. **Metal structures in Ukraine** , as well as throughout the world, used for the construction of different-purpose buildings - houses, stadiums, industrial complexes, shopping centers, etc.

It should be noted that the metal has a sufficiently low cost. This sobenno metal markedly when compared to other building materials such as brick or concrete.

Ease of Metal Transportation - is another significant advantage. Delivering metal structures and components to the construction site can already be assembled, as well as the individual elements can be transported.

*Production of metal structures * Lugansk region

The initial stage of the manufacture of metal structures is the design. This is necessary in order to take account of the expected loads, connection methods and the like

After designing begins metal processing machines for special corrosion resistant coating. After this comes another quality control - closed. It was only after these procedures begins labeling and packaging of metal structures for further shipment to the customer.

*Features of the installation* and

Perform installation of metal-constructions must be in accordance with the approved drawings Drafts. Ready to install as possible after construction of the foundation, and other reference points. The entire plant is similar to the work of the assembly with reinforced concrete structures. But unlike w / w, metal components are usually smaller in size and weight are at mene considerable deformability, which simplifies and speeds up the construction process.

*Benefits*

Steel structures have many advantages. As noted above, the metal is sufficiently low cost and portability is not complicated. However, this is not all advantages of this material.

The ease and reliability of the components, as well as resistance to various external factors (weather conditions, mechanical stress, distinguish steel products and alloys of other materials Quick installation -. Another distinct advantage of metal structures

.